This publication sets out a comprehensive review of tree root biology and covers a broad range of practical issues that need to be considered in order to grow trees successfully in our towns and cities and to realise the significant benefits they provide in built environments. Topics covered include: soil condition and roots; improving tree root growth in urban soils; water supply and drought amelioration for amenity trees; coping with soil contamination; protecting trees during excavation and good trenching practice; control of damage to tree roots on construction sites; tree root damage to buildings and pavements, sewers, drains and pipes; research needs and sustainability issues.
Dictionary for Managing Trees in Urban Environments is a comprehensive list of terms used in the universal management of urban trees. Many of the terms are from arboricultural science, while others are derived from unproven but commonly applied concepts. Where the existing terminology to describe trees was limited or nonexistent, new terms have been introduced. This dictionary allows for broad application and use by a wide variety of people and conveys in plain language concepts that are sometimes complex. Most major terms have been cross referenced and diagrams have been added for greater understanding. While a number of pertinent botanical terms have been included, those readily found within dictionaries of general plant sciences and botany have been omitted. Dictionary for Managing Trees in Urban Environments promotes a greater understanding of arboriculture and urban forestry, and will assist in the preparation of reports for the management of trees, procedures and planning instruments, such as Tree Management Policies and Tree Management Orders.
"Up By Roots is a manual for landscape architects, architects, urban foresters, and planners who are designing, specifying, installing and managing trees in the built environment. Part One discusses basic soil science and tree biology and their relationship to healthy trees. Part Two explains the process of planning and implementing landscape designs to ensure healthy trees that can improve the quality of places where people live, work and play. The book contains numberous illustrations and data in graphic form to provide guidance in the design of healthy soils and trees."--Pub. desc.
This book takes a sweeping view of the ways we build things, beginning at the scale of products and interiors, to that of regions and global systems. In doing so, it answers questions on how we effect and are affected by our environment and explores how components of what we make—from products, buildings, and cities—are interrelated, and why designers and planners must consider these connections.
Urban tree management is the key basis for greener cities of the future. It is a practical discipline which includes tree selection, planting, care and protection and the overall management of trees as a collective resource. Urban Tree Management aims to raise awareness for the positive impacts and benefits of city trees and for their importance to city dwellers. It describes their advantages and details their effects on quality of urban life and well-being – aspects that are increasingly important in these times of progressing urbanisation. With this book you will learn: fundamentals, methods and tools of urban tree management state of the art in the fields of urban forestry and tree biology positive effects and uses of urban trees features, requirements and selection criteria for urban trees conditions and problems of urban trees governance and management aspects environmental education programs. Edited by the leading expert Dr Andreas Roloff, Urban Tree Management is an excellent resource for plant scientists, horticulturists, dendrologists, arborists and arboriculturists, forestry scientists, city planners, parks department specialists and landscape architects. It will be an essential addition to all students and libraries where such subjects are taught.
Awareness of the importance of ensuring durability of concrete has been a growing concern of engineers, and there is now considerable understanding of the mechanisms, which cause its deterioration, and means of limiting such damage through the use of appropriate materials and approaches to design. Many of the deterioration mechanisms, which affect concrete, are the result of interaction with the non-living environment – chlorides in seawater, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, cyclic freezing and thawing. However, living organisms can also cause damage – through both chemical and physical processes - which under the right conditions, can be severe. This book looks at all forms of concrete biodeterioration together for the first time. It examines, from a fundamental starting point, biodeterioration mechanisms, as well as the conditions which allow living organisms (bacteria, fungi, plants and a range of marine organisms) to colonise concrete. A detailed evaluation of chemical compounds produced by living organisms with respect to their interaction with the mineral constituents of concrete, and the implications it has for the integrity of structures, is also included. Approaches to avoiding biodeterioration of concrete are also covered, including selection of materials, mix proportioning, design, and use of protective systems.
Back in print for the first time in years, the Watts Pocket Handbook renews its commitment to share industry knowledge by providing technical and legal information across a comprehensive spread of property and construction topics. Compiled by the Watts Technical Director, the Handbook provides specialist information and guidance on a vast selection of construction related subjects including: Contracts and procurement Insurance Materials and defects Environmental and sustainability issues Watts Pocket Handbook remains the must-have reference book for professionals and students engaged in construction, building surveying, service engineering, property development and much more.
The trees which line many of the streets in our towns and cities can often be regarded as part of a heritage landscape. Despite the difficult conditions of an urban environment, these trees may live for 100 years or more and represent Ôliving historyÕ in the midst of our modern streetscapes. This is the first book on the history of BritainÕs street trees and it gives a highly readable, authoritative and often amusing account of their story, from the tree-lined promenades of the seventeenth century to the majestic boulevards that grace some of our modern city centers. The impact of the Victorian street tree movement is examined, not only in the major cities but also in the rapidly developing suburbs that continued to expand through the twentieth century. There are fascinating descriptions of how street trees have helped to improve urban conditions in spa towns and seaside resorts and also in visionary initiatives such as the model villages, garden cities, garden suburbs and new towns. While much of the book focuses on the social and cultural history of our street trees, the last three chapters look at the practicalities of how these trees have been engineered into concrete landscapes. This includes the many threats to street trees over the years, such as pollution, conflict with urban infrastructure, pests and diseases and what is probably the greatest threat in recent times Ð the dramatic growth in car ownership. Street Trees in Britain will have particular appeal to those interested in heritage landscapes, urban history and the natural and built environment. Some of its themes were introduced in the authorÕs previous work, the widely acclaimed Trees in Towns and Cities: A History of British Urban Arboriculture.
The multi-disciplinary perspective provided here offers a strategic view on built environment issues and improve understanding of how built environment activities potentially induce global warming and climate change. It also highlights solutions to these challenges. Solutions to Climate change Challenges in the Built Environment helps develop an appreciation of the diverse themes of the climate change debate across the built environment continuum. A wide perspective is provided through contributions from physical, environmental, social, economic and political scientists. This strategic view on built environment issues will be useful to researchers as well as policy experts and construction practitioners wanting a holistic view. This book clarifies complex issues around climate change and follows five main themes: climate change experiences; urban landscape development; urban management issues; measurement of impact; and the future. Chapters are written by eminent specialists from both academic and professional backgrounds. The main context for chapters is the developed world but the discussion is widened to incorporate regional issues. The book will be valuable to researchers and students in all the built environment disciplines, as well as to practitioners involved with the design, construction and maintenance of buildings, and government organisations developing and implementing climate change policy.
Many arborists learn tree work practices without fully understanding the biological and physiological principles behind them. However, outcomes for the health and longevity of trees are greatly improved when an arborist understands the science behind the care of tree root systems and crowns. In Applied Tree Biology, Drs. Hirons and Thomas draw upon their decades of experience in the laboratory, classroom, and the field – as well as the expertise of distinguished contributors to this volume – to provide those responsible for tree care with the scientific information that informs best practices for planting, pruning, soil decompaction, irrigation, and much more. Takes a multidisciplinary approach, integrating knowledge from plant biology, physiology, arboriculture, ecology, and more Provides a systematic presentation of fundamental tree biology and the scientific principles informing high quality tree care Presents accessible scientific information and best practices that help promote the health and longevity of trees Reflects the authors’ decades of experience as tree biology researchers and educators, as well as their years of professional experience across the globe Applied Tree Biology is an indispensable source of practical, succinct information on tree biology, physiology, and ecology for professionals and interested amateurs involved with the care of trees. Arborists, foresters, and horticulturists at all stages of their careers will find this text particularly useful.
This is the first book on the history of trees in Britain’s towns and cities and the people who have planted and cared for them. It is a highly readable and authoritative account of the trees in our urban landscapes from the Romans to the present day, including public parks, private gardens, streets, cemeteries and many other open spaces. It charts how our appreciation of urban trees and woodland has evolved into our modern understanding of the many environmental, economic and social benefits of our urban forests. A description is also given of the various threats to these trees over the centuries, such as pollution damage during the Industrial Revolution and the recent ravages of Dutch elm disease. Central and local government initiatives are examined together with the contribution of civic and amenity societies. However, this historical account is not just a catalogue of significant events but gives a deeper analysis by exploring fundamental issues such as who owned those treed landscapes, why they were created and who had access to them. The book concludes with the fascinating story of how trees have contributed to efforts to improve urban conditions through various ‘visions of urban green’ such as the model villages, garden cities, garden suburbs and the new towns. Studies in garden and landscape history have often been preoccupied with those belonging to the rich and powerful. This book focuses particularly on working people and the extent to which they have been able to enjoy urban trees and greenspace. It will appeal to a general readership, especially those with an interest in garden history, heritage landscapes and the natural and built environment. Its meticulous referencing will also ensure it is much appreciated by students and academics pursuing further reading and research. It is written by an internationally renowned arboriculturist who combines a passion for trees with a sound understanding of British social and cultural history.