This pocket-sized reference on key environmental data for over 200 countries includes key indicators on agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, energy, emission and pollution, and water and sanitation. The volume helps establish a sound base of information to help set priorities and measure progress toward environmental sustainability goals.
Liam Clegg provides an innovative reading of where power lies in the institutions' concessional lending operations, drawing its focus on shareholders and stakeholders from staffs' own understandings of their operational environments.
The World Bank Research Program. Abstracts of Current Studies is a compendium of research projects initiated, ongoing, or completed in fiscal years 2005 through 2007 (from July 1, 2004 through June 30, 2007).1 Each abstract summarizes the research questions, analytical methods used, and findings and policy implications, and describes the research team and publications produced. The volume also includes a complete list of research outputs produced by World Bank staff during this period.This research program generates knowledge that is an essential intellectual foundation of the World Bank's cor.
'The World Bank Research Program 2008-2009: Abstracts of Current Studies' is a compendium of research projects initiated, ongoing, or completed in fiscal years 2008 to 2009 by World Bank staff and consultants.
Newly gained sovereignty, uneven penetration of neo-liberal ideals and the growth of disparate capitalist markets have elicited varied responses in Central Asia. What does development mean for the political class and for ordinary citizens? What are the effects of new capitalist institutions and markets? What impact did western development blueprints and external donor engagement leave in the region? This book illuminates the diverse realities of post-Soviet development in Central Asia through a multidisciplinary prism. The contributing articles are grounded in a range of social science disciplines including architecture, anthropology and geography. The analyses demonstrate how a synthesis of specialist knowledge from area studies and individual disciplinary methodologies can provide well-grounded critical positions on development. The book highlights the complexities of everyday routines of dispossession and coping strategies in the face of natural and manmade disasters. These experiences create deep moral anxieties under the debilitating effects of monetisation and marketisation of ordinary livelihoods, social ties and environmental resources. This book was originally published as a special issue of Central Asian Survey.
The World Bank's support in fostering growth and reducing poverty has contributed to the considerable economic success of MIC countries. But to produce greater development benefits, it has to become more agile and draw upon MICs' own capacity much more systematically, connecting such capabilities to help low-income countries and to tackle global challenges. The Bank's work has to more clearly demonstrate best practice to deliver impact beyond its limited direct role.
Governments and civil society in Latin America and the Caribbean should be well informed about the potential costs and benefits of combating climate change, their policy options over the next decades, and the global context for these policy decisions. At the same time, the global community needs to be better informed about the unique perspective of the Latin American and Caribbean region: problems the region will face, its potential contributions toward combating global warming, and how to maximize this potential while continuing to maintain growth and reduce poverty. This book, a companion volume to Low Carbon, High Growth: Latin American Responses to Climate Change, seeks to help fill both these needs.
Between 1978 and 1984, a massive shift from collective to household agricultural production took place in China. These incremental reforms, which Deng Xiaoping called "crossing the river while feeling the rocks," eventually gave 95 percent--160 million rural Chinese families--the right to oversee household plots, leading to stunning gains in productivity. Despite the success of the HRS, the enhancement of property rights is an ongoing reform process. Landholders depended on tenure agreements that could be changed at any time. Rural areas did not have the same right to profit from appreciating land values as urban landholders. As cities have expanded rapidly, municipalities have requisitioned rural land and issued it to new users at urban prices much higher than that paid to the rural villages. The policy debate about the appropriate pace for strengthening rural land use rights continues. This reform, the Household Responsibility System (HRS), provided strong incentives for farmers to increase labor and improve land, since they could profit from any marketable surplus they produced. Meanwhile, the state set quotas and purchased crops, providing reliable markets for increased production. It also strongly supported farmers by managing irrigation and the agricultural extension system. The state's earlier investments in rural nonfarm infrastructure paid off under the reforms, as workers released from agriculture by the more efficient use of labor found employment in local rural industries. In the years following the property reforms, the quality of life in rural China improved dramatically: per capita rural income more than doubled from 1978 to 1984. Having examined the substance, process, and effects of the reforms, this paper asks what lessons from the reforms are relevant for other developing countries. In spite of differences among countries, some elements of the Chinese reform experience seem highly relevant to others engaged in the struggle to develop.
The environmentalist's bible' Times Higher Education Supplement. 'Essential reading' The Good Book Guide. 'The most comprehensive, up-to-date, and accessible summaries ... on the global environment' E. O. Wilson, Pulitzer Prize winner. Celebrating its 25th year of publication, State of the World 2008 suggests that something huge and even revolutionary is struggling to be born as policymakers, business leaders and others around the globe create the architecture of sustainable economies. Featuring chapters on renewable energy, innovations in clean production, commons resources, trade policy, finance for sustainability, new economic yardsticks, and many other topics, State of the World 2008 is the first global-level publication to showcase a wide range of diverse innovations and to demonstrate their near-term potential to put whole societies on a sustainable path. Published annually in 28 languages, State of the World is relied upon by national governments, UN agencies, development workers and law-makers for its authoritative and up-to-the-minute analysis and information. It is essential for anyone concerned with building a positive, global future.
Whereas there is plenty of work looking at macroeconomic effect of public spending on growth and poverty in Africa as well as studies of the impact of spending or investment in one economic sector on outcomes in that sector or on broader welfare measures, this book fills a much needed gap in the research looking how the composition of public spending affects key development outcomes in the region. The book brings together recent analysis on the trends in, and returns to, public spending for agricultural growth and rural development in Africa. Case studies of selected African countries provide insights on the contributions of different types of public expenditures for poverty, growth and welfare outcomes, as well as insights into the constraints in gaining development mileage from investments in the agricultural sector.
The local and global environmental impacts of transport are more apparent than ever before. Moving People provides an attention-grabbing introduction to the problems of transport and the development of sustainable alternatives, focusing on the often misunderstood issue of personal mobility, as opposed to freight. Re-assessing the value and importance of non-motorized transport the author raises questions about mobility in the face of climate change and energy security, particularly for the developing world. Featuring original case studies from across the globe, this book is essential for anyone studying or working in the area of environmental sustainability and transport policy.