The Cyber Deterrence Problem

The Cyber Deterrence Problem

Author: Aaron F. Brantly

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

ISBN: 1786615649

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 259

The Cyber Deterrence Problem brings together a multi-disciplinary team of scholars from multiple institutions to analyze and develop a robust assessment of the necessary requirements and attributes for achieving deterrence in cyberspace.

The Cyber Deterrence Problem

The Cyber Deterrence Problem

Author: Aaron F. Brantly

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

ISBN: 9781786615664

Category: Political Science

Page: 203

View: 337

The national security of the United States depends on a secure, reliable and resilient cyberspace. The inclusion of digital systems into every aspect of US national security has been underway since World War II and has increased with the proliferation of Internet-enabled devices. There is an increasing need to develop a robust deterrence framework within which the United States and its allies can dissuade would-be adversaries from engaging in various cyber activities. Yet despite a desire to deter adversaries, the problems associated with dissuasion remain complex, multifaceted, poorly understood and imprecisely specified. Challenges, including credibility, attribution, escalation and conflict management, remain ever-present and challenge the United States in its efforts to foster security in cyberspace. These challenges need to be addressed in a deliberate and multidisciplinary approach that combines political and technical realities to provide a robust set of policy options to decision makers. The Cyber Deterrence Problem brings together a multidisciplinary team of scholars with expertise in computer science, deterrence theory, cognitive psychology, intelligence studies and conflict management to analyze and develop a robust assessment of the necessary requirements and attributes for achieving deterrence in cyberspace. Beyond simply addressing the base challenges associated with deterrence, many of the chapters also propose strategies and tactics to enhance deterrence in cyberspace and emphasize conceptualizing how the United States deters adversaries.

Strongpoint Cyber Deterrence

Strongpoint Cyber Deterrence

Author: James J. Torrence

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 9781796084689

Category: Law

Page: 220

View: 256

This important U.S. strategic studies work seeks to develop a cyber deterrence strategy by drawing upon the hard-learned lessons of the past—specifically from Cold War deterrence theory and Cold War missile defense. Ultimately, a strongpoint defense is proposed along with a decentralized and further hardened critical infrastructure approach that continually exploits emergent innovation opportunities through investment in research. Dave Dilegge Editor-in-Chief Small Wars Journal

Optimizing Cyberdeterrence

Optimizing Cyberdeterrence

Author: Robert Mandel

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 9781626164147

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 858

Cyberattacks are one of the greatest fears for governments and the private sector. The attacks come without warning and can be extremely costly and embarrassing. Robert Mandel offers a unique and comprehensive strategic vision for how governments, in partnership with the private sector, can deter cyberattacks from both nonstate and state actors. Cyberdeterrence must be different from conventional military or nuclear deterrence, which are mainly based on dissuading an attack by forcing the aggressor to face unacceptable costs. In the cyber realm, where attributing a specific attack to a specific actor is extremely difficult, conventional deterrence principles are not enough. Mandel argues that cyberdeterrence must alter a potential attacker’s decision calculus by not only raising costs for the attacker but also by limiting the prospects for gain. Cyberdeterrence must also involve indirect unorthodox restraints, such as exposure to negative blowback and deceptive diversionary measures, and cross-domain measures rather than just retaliation in kind. The book includes twelve twenty-first-century cyberattack case studies to draw insights into cyberdeterrence and determine the conditions under which it works most effectively. Mandel concludes by making recommendations for implementing cyberdeterrence and integrating it into broader national security policy. Cyber policy practitioners and scholars will gain valuable and current knowledge from this excellent study.

Cross-Domain Deterrence

Cross-Domain Deterrence

Author: Erik Gartzke

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190908676

Category: Political Science

Page: 384

View: 573

The complexity of the twenty-first century threat landscape contrasts markedly with the bilateral nuclear bargaining context envisioned by classical deterrence theory. Nuclear and conventional arsenals continue to develop alongside anti-satellite programs, autonomous robotics or drones, cyber operations, biotechnology, and other innovations barely imagined in the early nuclear age. The concept of cross-domain deterrence (CDD) emerged near the end of the George W. Bush administration as policymakers and commanders confronted emerging threats to vital military systems in space and cyberspace. The Pentagon now recognizes five operational environments or so-called domains (land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace), and CDD poses serious problems in practice. In Cross-Domain Deterrence, Erik Gartzke and Jon R. Lindsay assess the theoretical relevance of CDD for the field of International Relations. As a general concept, CDD posits that how actors choose to deter affects the quality of the deterrence they achieve. Contributors to this volume include senior and junior scholars and national security practitioners. Their chapters probe the analytical utility of CDD by examining how differences across, and combinations of, different military and non-military instruments can affect choices and outcomes in coercive policy in historical and contemporary cases.

Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Cyber IV

Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Cyber IV

Author: Azhar Unwala

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 9781626162167

Category: Political Science

Page: 160

View: 172

Each spring, the Cyber Project at Georgetown University’s Institute for Law, Science, and Global Security convenes a conference of leading international experts from academia, the private sector, and government to address cutting-edge issues in cybersecurity. The 2014 annual conference is the starting point for this special issue of the Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, the fourth volume in the annual International Engagement on Cyber series. Key papers from the conference have been included in this issue along with new articles added to round out this collaboration between the Cyber Project and the journal. This issue begins with a group of articles under the theme “A Post-Snowden Cyberspace,” describing how Edward Snowden’s revelations directly or indirectly changed the way the global community understands cybersecurity and cyber law. Other topics covered include cyber weapons, cyber deterrence, Japan’s cybersecurity strategy, data protection in the private sector, executive accountability for data breaches, minimum security standards for connected devices, and the problem of underinvestment in cybersecurity. Please note, this special issue is not included in the subscription to the journal. The Georgetown Journal of International Affairs is the official publication of the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. Each issue of the journal provides readers with a diverse array of timely, peer-reviewed content penned by top policymakers, business leaders, and academic luminaries.

Cyber War versus Cyber Realities

Cyber War versus Cyber Realities

Author: Brandon Valeriano

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190204808

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 670

In 2011, the United States government declared a cyber attack as equal to an act of war, punishable with conventional military means. Cyber operations, cyber crime, and other forms of cyber activities directed by one state against another are now considered part of the normal relations range of combat and conflict, and the rising fear of cyber conflict has brought about a reorientation of military affairs. What is the reality of this threat? Is it actual or inflated, fear or fact-based? Taking a bold stand against the mainstream wisdom, Valeriano and Maness argue that there is very little evidence that cyber war is, or is likely to become, a serious threat. Their claim is empirically grounded, involving a careful analysis of cyber incidents and disputes experienced by international states since 2001, and an examination of the processes leading to cyber conflict. As the authors convincingly show, cyber incidents are a little-used tactic, with low-level intensity and few to no long-term effects. As well, cyber incidents are motivated by the same dynamics that prompt regional conflicts. Based on this evidence, Valeriano and Maness lay out a set of policy recommendations for proper defense against cyber threats that is built on restraint and regionalism.

NL ARMS Netherlands Annual Review of Military Studies 2020

NL ARMS Netherlands Annual Review of Military Studies 2020

Author: Frans Osinga

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789462654198

Category: Law

Page: 538

View: 207

This open access volume surveys the state of the field to examine whether a fifth wave of deterrence theory is emerging. Bringing together insights from world-leading experts from three continents, the volume identifies the most pressing strategic challenges, frames theoretical concepts, and describes new strategies. The use and utility of deterrence in today’s strategic environment is a topic of paramount concern to scholars, strategists and policymakers. Ours is a period of considerable strategic turbulence, which in recent years has featured a renewed emphasis on nuclear weapons used in defence postures across different theatres; a dramatic growth in the scale of military cyber capabilities and the frequency with which these are used; and rapid technological progress including the proliferation of long-range strike and unmanned systems. These military-strategic developments occur in a polarized international system, where cooperation between leading powers on arms control regimes is breaking down, states widely make use of hybrid conflict strategies, and the number of internationalized intrastate proxy conflicts has quintupled over the past two decades. Contemporary conflict actors exploit a wider gamut of coercive instruments, which they apply across a wider range of domains. The prevalence of multi-domain coercion across but also beyond traditional dimensions of armed conflict raises an important question: what does effective deterrence look like in the 21st century? Answering that question requires a re-appraisal of key theoretical concepts and dominant strategies of Western and non-Western actors in order to assess how they hold up in today’s world. Air Commodore Professor Dr. Frans Osinga is the Chair of the War Studies Department of the Netherlands Defence Academy and the Special Chair in War Studies at the University Leiden. Dr. Tim Sweijs is the Director of Research at The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies and a Research Fellow at the Faculty of Military Sciences of the Netherlands Defence Academy in Breda.

Congress on Intelligent Systems

Congress on Intelligent Systems

Author: Mukesh Saraswat

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811691133

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 933

View: 422

This book is a collection of selected papers presented at the Second Congress on Intelligent Systems (CIS 2021), organized by Soft Computing Research Society and CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bengaluru, India during September 4 – 5, 2021. It includes novel and innovative work from experts, practitioners, scientists and decision-makers from academia and industry. It covers topics such as Internet of Things, information security, embedded systems, real-time systems, cloud computing, big data analysis, quantum computing, automation systems, bio-inspired intelligence, cognitive systems, cyber physical systems, data analytics, data/web mining, data science, intelligence for security, intelligent decision making systems, intelligent information processing, intelligent transportation, artificial intelligence for machine vision, imaging sensors technology, image segmentation, convolutional neural network, image/video classification, soft computing for machine vision, pattern recognition, human computer interaction, robotic devices and systems, autonomous vehicles, intelligent control systems, human motor control, game playing, evolutionary algorithms, swarm optimization, neural network, deep learning, supervised learning, unsupervised learning, fuzzy logic, rough sets, computational optimization, and neuro fuzzy systems.

Cyberdeterrence and Cyberwar

Cyberdeterrence and Cyberwar

Author: Martin C. Libicki

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 9780833047342

Category: Computers

Page: 239

View: 583

Cyberspace, where information—and hence serious value—is stored and manipulated, is a tempting target. An attacker could be a person, group, or state and may disrupt or corrupt the systems from which cyberspace is built. When states are involved, it is tempting to compare fights to warfare, but there are important differences. The author addresses these differences and ways the United States protect itself in the face of attack.

NATO 2030

NATO 2030

Author: Jason Blessing

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9781947661110

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 162

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the world’s largest, most powerful military alliance. The Alliance has navigated and survived the Cold War, the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the post-9/11 era. Since the release of the 2010 Strategic Concept, NATO’s strategic environment has again undergone significant change. The need to adapt is clear. An opportunity to assess the Alliance’s achievements and future goals has now emerged with the Secretary General’s drive to create a new Strategic Concept for the next decade—an initiative dubbed NATO 2030. A necessary step for formulating a new strategic outlook will thus be understanding the future that faces NATO. To remain relevant and adjust to new circumstances, the Alliance must identify its main challenges and opportunities in the next ten years and beyond. This book contributes to critical conversations on NATO’s future vitality by examining the Alliance’s most salient issues and by offering recommendations to ensure its effectiveness moving forward. Written by a diverse, multigenerational group of policymakers and academics from across Europe and the United States, this book provides new insights about NATO’s changing threat landscape, its shifting internal dynamics, and the evolution of warfare. The volume’s authors tackle a wide range of issues, including the challenges of Russia and China, democratic backsliding, burden sharing, the extension of warfare to space and cyberspace, partnerships, and public opinion. With rigorous assessments of NATO’s challenges and opportunities, each chapter provides concrete recommendations for the Alliance to chart a path for the future. As such, this book is an indispensable resource for NATO’s strategic planners and security and defense experts more broadly.