This book develops a general approach that can be systematically refined to investigate the statics and dynamics of deformable solid bodies. These methods are then employed to small bodies in the Solar System. With several space missions underway and more being planned, interest in our immediate neighbourhood is growing. In this spirit, this book investigates various phenomena encountered in planetary science, including disruptions during planetary fly-bys, equilibrium shapes and stability of small rubble bodies, and spin-driven shape changes. The flexible procedure proposed here will help readers gain valuable insights into the mechanics of solar system bodies, while at the same time complementing numerical investigations. The technique itself is built upon the virial method successfully employed by Chandrasekhar (1969) to study the equilibrium shapes of spinning fluid objects. However, here Chandrasekhar’s approach is modified in order to study more complex dynamical situations and include objects of different rheologies, e.g., granular aggregates, or “rubble piles”. The book is largely self-contained, though some basic familiarity with continuum mechanics will be beneficial.
The small bodies in planetary systems are indicative of the material evo- tion, the dynamical evolution, and the presence of planets in a system. Recent astronomicalresearch,spaceresearch,laboratoryresearch,andnumericals- ulationsbroughtawealthofnewandexciting?ndingsonextra-solarplanetary systems and on asteroids, comets, meteoroids, dust, and trans-Neptunian - jects in the solar system. Progress in astronomical instrumentation led to the discovery and investigation of small bodies in the outer solar system and to observations of cosmic dust in debris disks of extra-solar planetary systems. Space research allowed for close studies of some of the small solar system bodies from spacecraft. This lecture series is intended as an introduction to the latest research results and to the key issues of future research. The ch- ters are mainly based on lectures given during a recent research school and on research activities within the 21st Century COE Program “Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems” at Kobe University, Japan. In Chap. 1, Taku Takeuchi discusses the evolution of gas and dust from protoplanetary disks to planetary disks. Using a simple model, he studies v- cous evolution and photoevaporation as possible mechanisms of gas dispersal. He further considers how the dust grows into planetesimals. Motion of dust particles induced by gas drag is described, and then using a simple analytic model, the dust growth timescale is discussed.
"More than forty chapters detail our current astronomical, compositional, geological, and geophysical knowledge of asteroids, as well as their unique physical processes and interrelationships with comets and meteorites"--Provided by publisher.
Two hundred years after the first asteroid was discovered, asteroids can no longer be considered mere points of light in the sky. Spacecraft missions, advanced Earth-based observation techniques, and state-of-the-art numerical models are continually revealing the detailed shapes, structures, geological properties, and orbital characteristics of these smaller denizens of our solar system. This volume brings together the latest information obtained by spacecraft combined with astronomical observations and theoretical modeling, to present our best current understanding of asteroids and the clues they reveal for the origin an,d evolution of the solar system. This collective knowledge, prepared by a team of more than one hundred international authorities on asteroids, includes new insights into asteroid-meteorite connections, possible relationships with comets, and the hazards posed by asteroids colliding with Earth. The book's contents include reports on surveys based on remote observation and summaries of physical properties; results of in situ exploration; studies of dynamical, collisional, cosmochemical, and weathering evolutionary processes; and discussions of asteroid families and the relationships between asteroids and other solar system bodies. Two previous Space Science Series volumes have established standards for research into asteroids. Asteroids III carries that tradition forward in a book that will stand as the definitive source on its subject for the next decade.
Granular materials play an important role in many industries. Continuous ingenuity and advancement in these industries necessitates the ability to predict the fundamental behaviour of granular materials under different working environments. With contributions from international experts in the field Granular Materials; Fundamentals and Applications details recent advances made in theoretical computational and experimental approaches in understanding the behaviour of granular materials including industrial applications. Topics covered include: * key features of granular plasticity * high temperature particle interactions * influence of polymers on particulate dispersion stability: scanning probe microscopy investigations * in-process measurement of particulate systems Presented by world renowned researchers this book will be welcomed by scientists and engineers working across a wide spectrum of engineering disciplines.
This book focuses on the impact dynamics and cratering of soft matter to describe its importance, difficulty, and wide applicability to planetary-related problems. A comprehensive introduction to the dimensional analysis and constitutive laws that are necessary to discuss impact mechanics and cratering is first provided. Then, particular coverage is given to the impact of granular matter, which is one of the most crucial constituents for geophysics. While granular matter shows both solid-like and fluid-like behaviors, neither solid nor fluid dynamics is sufficient to fully understand the physics of granular matter. In order to reveal its fundamental properties, extensive impact tests have been carried out recently. The author reveals the findings of these recent studies as well as what remains unsolved in terms of impact dynamics. Impact crater morphology with various soft matter impacts also is discussed intensively. Various experimental and observational results up to the recent Itokawa asteroid’s terrain and nanocrater are reviewed and explained mainly by dimensional analysis. The author discusses perspectives of the relation between soft matter physics and planetary science, because it is an important step towards unifying physics and planetary science, in both of which fields crater morphology has been studied independently.
Planetary rings are among the most intriguing structures of our solar system and have fascinated generations of astronomers. Collating emerging knowledge in the field, this volume reviews our current understanding of ring systems with reference to the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and more. Written by leading experts, the history of ring research and the basics of ring–particle orbits is followed by a review of the known planetary ring systems. All aspects of ring system science are described in detail, including specific dynamical processes, types of structures, thermal properties and their origins, and investigations using computer simulations and laboratory experiments. The concluding chapters discuss the prospects of future missions to planetary rings, the ways in which ring science informs and is informed by the study of other astrophysical disks, and a perspective on the field's future. Researchers of all levels will benefit from this thorough and engaging presentation.
Finally, the volume-averaged method is used to study planetary fly-bys of asteroid's The asteroid is modeled as a rigid-granular material. Results comparable to published numerical simulations are obtained. Investigating planetary fly-bys is important because they too offer an insight into the interior of asteroids.
Provides a useful overview of core mathematical background, and applications of nonlinear science to key problems in ecology and biological systems, chemical reaction-diffusion problems, geophysics, economics, etc.
With the bulk of asteroids floating in space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, astronomers puzzle over where these rocks came from. Are they the remnants of a planet? Excess not used in the formation of the Solar System? Nothing more than random bits of debris? The location of the belt makes for a quasi-barrier separating the inner from the outer planets. Perhaps asteroids were meant to discourage human space exploration. NASA has sent missions to explore the asteroid belt and the rocks themselves, and those missions have yielded some interesting observations on the composition of the asteroids but no definitive answer as to their origin. Earth-based tools such as telescopes and satellites also contribute to asteroid research but cannot plumb the depths behind these varied chunks of flotsam. Presented in this book is a list of carefully chosen abstracts and citations of relevant literature about asteroids and the research into them. Prior to this listing, though, comes an overview of the nature of the asteroids and what we know now about them and what we hope to discover in the future. lifeless but mysterious rocks inhabiting the solar system. To conclude, easy access is provided through author, title, and subject indexes.
This book is one of two volumes meant to capture, to the extent practical, the scienti?c legacy of the Cassini-Huygens prime mission, a landmark in the history of planetary exploration. As the most ambitious and interdisciplinary planetary exploration mission ?own to date, it has extended our knowledge of the Saturn system to levels of detail at least an order of magnitude beyond that gained from all previous missions to Saturn. Nestled in the brilliant light of the new and deep understanding of the Saturn planetary system is the shiny nugget that is the spectacularly successful collaboration of individuals, - ganizations and governments in the achievement of Cassini-Huygens. In some ways the pa- nershipsformedandlessonslearnedmaybethemost enduringlegacyofCassini-Huygens.The broad, international coalition that is Cassini-Huygens is now conducting the Cassini Equinox Mission and planning the Cassini Solstice Mission, and in a major expansion of those fruitful efforts, has extended the collaboration to the study of new ?agship missions to both Jupiter and Saturn. Such ventures have and will continue to enrich us all, and evoke a very optimistic vision of the future of international collaboration in planetary exploration. The two volumes in the series Saturn from Cassini-Huygens and Titan from Cassini- Huygens are the direct products of the efforts of over 200 authors and co-authors. Though each book has a different set of three editors, the group of six editors for the two volumes has worked together through every step of the process to ensure that these two volumes are a set.