The task of the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (1967-82) was to create a new ocean regime. Participants negotiated every major issue of ocean use: jurisdiction in the coastal and contiguous zones, the territorial sea, and the new two-hundred-mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ); transit and overflight through straits and archipelagos; fisheries management in the EEZs and high seas; ocean environmental obligations; the right to conduct ocean science; and the management of deep seabed mineral exploitation. Negotiating the treaty required more than fifteen years and the consent of more than one hundred and fifty nations. The resulting treaty, composed of three hundred and twenty articles plus seven major annexes, represents the final product of the largest, longest, and most complex formal negotiation in modern times. Negotiating the New Ocean Regime analyzes both the substance of the problems at hand - what should be done about the oceans - and the process of the bargaining and negotiating. With law and history as a background, Robert Friedheim uses regime theory and resource economics to analyze ocean problems and bargaining/cooperation theory of negotiation. To evaluate the treaty through the eyes of the stakeholders, the author employs a multi-attribute utility model. Finally, he assesses the bargaining system - parliamentary diplomacy with consensus as the decisive rule - for its usefulness, limitations, and applicability to other current global problems.
The Law of the Sea (LOS) treaty resulted from some of the most complicated multilateral negotiations ever conducted. Difficult bargaining produced a remarkably sophisticated agreement on the financial aspects of deep ocean mining and on the financing of a new international mining entity. This book analyzes those negotiations along with the abrupt U.S. rejection of their results. Building from this episode, it derives important and subtle general rules and propositions for reaching superior, sustainable agreements in complex bargaining situations. James Sebenius shows how agreements were possible among the parties because and not in spite of differences in their values, expectations, and attitudes toward time and risk. He shows how linking separately intractable issues can generate a zone of possible agreement. He analyzes the extensive role of a computer model in the LOS talks. Finally, he argues that in many negotiations neither the issues nor the parties are fixed and develops analytic techniques that predict how the addition or deletion of either issues or parties may affect the process of reaching agreement.
This important new text in international law, international relations, and maritime affairs describes in detail the concurrent development of international law and law of the sea, the complex negotiating process that resulted in the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention, and policy directions and issues for the U.S. in the post-Convention environment.
Publisher: Cambridge, Mass. : Ballinger Publishing Company
Category: Conference. Law of the sea
Værket indeholder en række emner og kommentarer hertil, der blev fremlagt på en havretskonference afholdt på Rhode Island Universitetet, Kingston i 1976.(Law of Sea Institute Tenth Annual Conference June 22-25, 1976). Part I: International Aspects of Economic Zone Management Living Resources. Part II: Modes of Establishing Exclusive Economic Zones. Part III: Science and Environment. Part IV: Exploitation of the Deep Seabed. Part V: Concluding Banquet.