Use of argumentation methods applied to legal reasoning is a relatively new field of study. The book provides a survey of the leading problems, and outlines how future research using argumentation-based methods show great promise of leading to useful solutions. The problems studied include not only these of argument evaluation and argument invention, but also analysis of specific kinds of evidence commonly used in law, like witness testimony, circumstantial evidence, forensic evidence and character evidence. New tools for analyzing these kinds of evidence are introduced.
Currently, one of the methodological debates in linguistics focuses on the question of what kinds of data are allowed in different linguistic theories and what subtypes of data can work as evidence for or against particular hypotheses. The first part of the volume puts forward a methodological framework called the ‘p-model’ that is expected to account for the data/evidence problem in linguistics. The aim of the case studies in the second part is to show how this framework can be applied to the everyday research practice of the working linguist, and how it can increase the effectiveness of linguistic theorising. Accordingly, the case studies exemplify that the p-model can come to grips with diverse object-scientific quandaries in syntax, semantics and pragmatics. The third part includes case studies that illustrate how it copes with metascientific issues such as inconsistency in linguistic theories and the relationship between thought experiments and real experiments.
This book examines argumentative situations as they develop in different cultures and language groups. It considers the development of argumentation studies, making greater allowance for the specificities of argument as developed by “non-mainstream cultures”; the contribution of Jainism to the framework of philosophical disputation in India; duel songs as an institutionalized argumentative genre practiced by Ammassalik culture within the Inuit community; the application of the Muslim theological-legal reasoning system to evaluate two traditional, pre-Muslim traditional practices in Borneo; the annotation of schemes on the basis of Walton’s taxonomy of argument schemes and Wagemans’ Periodic Table of Arguments; methodology proposed for the reconstruction and analysis of “double-mode” arguments in advertisements, combining the instruments developed in social semiotics, pragmatics, and argumentation theory; and a review of the argumentation-theoretical literature on metaphor in argumentative discourse. This book is of interest to students and researchers in argumentation studies, rhetoric, philosophy, cultural studies and language studies. Previously published in Argumentation Volume 35, issue 1, March 2021 Chapters "Annotating Argument Schemes" and "The Study of Metaphor in Argumentation Theory" are available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.
This book aims to advance ongoing debates in the field of mathematics and mathematics education regarding conceptions of argumentation, justification, and proof and the consequences for research and practice when applying particular conceptions of each construct. Through analyses of classroom practice across grade levels using different lenses - particular conceptions of argumentation, justification, and proof - researchers consider the implications of how each conception shapes empirical outcomes. In each section, organized by grade band, authors adopt particular conceptions of argumentation, justification, and proof, and they analyse one data set from each perspective. In addition, each section includes a synthesis chapter from an expert in the field to bring to the fore potential implications, as well as new questions, raised by the analyses. Finally, a culminating section considers the use of each conception across grade bands and data sets.
This monograph poses a series of key problems of evidential reasoning and argumentation. It then offers solutions achieved by applying recently developed computational models of argumentation made available in artificial intelligence. Each problem is posed in such a way that the solution is easily understood. The book progresses from confronting these problems and offering solutions to them, building a useful general method for evaluating arguments along the way. It provides a hands-on survey explaining to the reader how to use current argumentation methods and concepts that are increasingly being implemented in more precise ways for the application of software tools in computational argumentation systems. It shows how the use of these tools and methods requires a new approach to the concepts of knowledge and explanation suitable for diverse settings, such as issues of public safety and health, debate, legal argumentation, forensic evidence, science education, and the use of expert opinion evidence in personal and public deliberations.
Traditionally, logic has been claimed to be 'the science of rational argument', but the relevance to our everyday disputes of the formal logician's results has remained unclear. The abstract character of traditional logic cuts the subject off from practical considerations; Mr Toulmin enquires why this is so, and shows how an alternative conception can be of more general value. Starting from an examination of the actual procedures in different fields of argument - the practice, as opposed to the theory, of logic - he discloses a richer variety than is allowed for by any available system. He argues that jurisprudence rather than mathematics should be the logician's model in analysing rational procedures, and that logic should be a comparative and not a purely formal study. These suggestions lead to conclusions which many will consider controversial; though they will also be widely recognized as interesting and illuminating. This book extends into general philosophy lines of enquiry already sketched by Mr Toulmin in his earlier books on ethics and the philosophy of science. The ordinary reader will find in it the same clarity and intelligibility; and the professional philosopher will acknowledge the same power to break new ground (and circumvent old difficulties) by posing fresh and stimulating questions.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Logic and Argumentation, CLAR 2021, held in Hangzhou, China, in October 2021. The 20 full and 10 short papers presented together with 5 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 58 submissions. The topics of accepted papers cover the focus of the CLAR series, including formal models of argumentation, a variety of logic formalisms, nonmonotonic reasoning, dispute and dialogue systems, formal treatment of preference and support, and well as applications in areas like vaccine information and processing of legal texts.
Argumentation is all around us. Letters to the Editor often make points of cons- tency, and “Why” is one of the most frequent questions in language, asking for r- sons behind behaviour. And argumentation is more than ‘reasoning’ in the recesses of single minds, since it crucially involves interaction. It cements the coordinated social behaviour that has allowed us, in small bands of not particularly physically impressive primates, to dominate the planet, from the mammoth hunt all the way up to organized science. This volume puts argumentation on the map in the eld of Arti cial Intelligence. This theme has been coming for a while, and some famous pioneers are chapter authors, but we can now see a broader systematic area emerging in the sum of topics and results. As a logician, I nd this intriguing, since I see AI as ‘logic continued by other means’, reminding us of broader views of what my discipline is about. Logic arose originally out of re ection on many-agent practices of disputation, in Greek Ant- uity, but also in India and China. And logicians like me would like to return to this broader agenda of rational agency and intelligent interaction. Of course, Aristotle also gave us a formal systems methodology that deeply in uenced the eld, and eventually connected up happily with mathematical proof and foundations.
′This book can provide an excellent framework for bolstering what is often an experiential process - doing a literature review. It is best seen alongside the supervisor, as a guide, through the multidimensional sea of academic literature′ - British Educational Research Journal Reviewing the literature for a research project can seem a daunting, even overwhelming task. New researchers, in particular, wonder: Where do I start? What do I do? How do I do it? This text offers students across the social sciences and humanities a practical and comprehensive guide to writing a literature review. Chris Hart offers invaluable advice on how to: search out existing knowledge on a topic; analyse arguments and ideas; map ideas, arguments and perspectives; produce a literature review; and construct a case for investigating a topic. Doing a Literature Review contains examples of how to cite references, structure a research proposal and present a Master′s thesis. It is published as a Set Book for The Open University Postgraduate Foundation Module (D820) The Challenge of the Social Sciences. `I have been waiting for this book for five years. It sets out a number of important dimensions involved in the process of literature review and by clear signposting, diagrams, and examples will help the student to carry out her or his review more systematically. Learning how to carry out a literature review has always entailed the experiential. While this is a the best way of learning, it is only so providing that learning actually takes place during the experience (or by reflection afterwards). This book makes explicit those dimensions which could remain implicit or even missed by the student as they wade through all those books, papers, articles, and print-outs′ - Kevin Maguire, Nottingham Trent University SAGE Study Skills are essential study guides for students of all levels. From how to write great essays and succeeding at university, to writing your undergraduate dissertation and doing postgraduate research, SAGE Study Skills help you get the best from your time at university. Visit the SAGE Study Skills hub for tips, resources and videos on study success!