Geographic information systems have developed rapidly in the past decade, and are now a major class of software, with applications that include infrastructure maintenance, resource management, agriculture, Earth science, and planning. But a lack of standards has led to a general inability for one GIS to interoperate with another. It is difficult for one GIS to share data with another, or for people trained on one system to adapt easily to the commands and user interface of another. Failure to interoperate is a problem at many levels, ranging from the purely technical to the semantic and the institutional. Interoperating Geographic Information Systems is about efforts to improve the ability of GISs to interoperate, and has been assembled through a collaboration between academic researchers and the software vendor community under the auspices of the US National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis and the Open GIS Consortium Inc. It includes chapters on the basic principles and the various conceptual frameworks that the research community has developed to think about the problem. Other chapters review a wide range of applications and the experiences of the authors in trying to achieve interoperability at a practical level. Interoperability opens enormous potential for new ways of using GIS and new mechanisms for exchanging data, and these are covered in chapters on information marketplaces, with special reference to geographic information. Institutional arrangements are also likely to be profoundly affected by the trend towards interoperable systems, and nowhere is the impact of interoperability more likely to cause fundamental change than in education, as educators address the needs of a new generation of GIS users with access to a new generation of tools. The book concludes with a series of chapters on education and institutional change. Interoperating Geographic Information Systems is suitable as a secondary text for graduate level courses in computer science, geography, spatial databases, and interoperability and as a reference for researchers and practitioners in industry, commerce and government.
The book contains private views of experts from various countries on the role of geological mapping in sustainable development. New technologies and concepts are presented, which are either awaiting for recognition by Geological Surveys, or are gradually applied in some survey. The target of the book is well worded in the "Summary and recommendations" elaborated by the Ad Hoc Committee at the Advanced Research Workshop on Innovative Geological Cartography, held under NATO sponsorship in Poland in November 2003. After the "Summaries" were issued by the end of 2003, the authors who presented their views at the Workshop, gave a revised version of their papers with more new ideas and material. Generally, the book is addressed to cartographers in Geological Surveys, geologists and geographers co-operating with landuse planners, ecologists and decision makers, who may learn about the state-of-the-art and the enormous information potential of the modern information technologies in Geosciences. The book, however, gives no methodological recipes but, as it was the authors' intention, may and shall be used as a guide-book in modernizing Information Technologies at the local, regional and national levels in Geosciences.
Published in dual print and electronic formats, this is a new edition of a much acclaimed reference source that brings together a wide range of sources of information in the African studies field, covering both print and electronic sources. It evaluates the best online resources, the major general reference tools in print format, current bibliographies and indexing services, biographical, cartographic, statistical and economic resources, as well as film and video resources.
This book covers developing web applications with Ruby on Rails. It discusses Ajax, directory services, and web services. The book details the configuration of Ruby on Rails with different databases such as MySQL, Oracle and SQL Server 2005. In addition, it makes a comparison with PHP, the most commonly used scripting language for developing web applications. The book also provides example applications that may be modified to suit a developer’s application.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th Extended Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2013, held in Montpellier, France, in May 2013. The 42 revised full papers presented together with three invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 162 submissions. They are organized in tracks on ontologies; linked open data; semantic data management; mobile Web, sensors and semantic streams; reasoning; natural language processing and information retrieval; machine learning; social Web and Web science; cognition and semantic Web; and in-use and industrial tracks. The book also includes 17 PhD papers presented at the PhD Symposium.
Backpacker brings the outdoors straight to the reader's doorstep, inspiring and enabling them to go more places and enjoy nature more often. The authority on active adventure, Backpacker is the world's first GPS-enabled magazine, and the only magazine whose editors personally test the hiking trails, camping gear, and survival tips they publish. Backpacker's Editors' Choice Awards, an industry honor recognizing design, feature and product innovation, has become the gold standard against which all other outdoor-industry awards are measured.