Prolog is a programming language, but a rather unusual one. Prolog'' is short for Programming with Logic'', and the link with logic gives Prolog its special character. At the heart of Prolog lies a surprising idea: don't tell the computer what to do. Instead, describe situations of interest, and compute by asking questions. Prolog will logically deduce new facts about the situations and give its deductions back to us as answers. Why learn Prolog? For a start, its say what the problem is, rather than how to solve it'' stance, means that it is a very high level language, good for knowledge rich applications such as artificial intelligence, natural language processing, and the semantic web. So by studying Prolog, you gain insight into how sophisticated tasks can be handled computationally. Moreover, Prolog requires a different mindset. You have to learn to see problems from a new perspective, declaratively rather than procedurally. Acquiring this mindset, and learning to appreciate the links between logic and programming, makes the study of Prolog both challenging and rewarding. Learn Prolog Now! is a practical introduction to this fascinating language. Freely available as a web-book since 2002 (see www.learnprolognow.org) Learn Prolog Now! has became one of the most popular introductions to the Prolog programming language, an introduction prized for its clarity and down-to-earth approach. It is widely used as a textbook at university departments around the world, and even more widely used for self study. College Publications is proud to present here the first hard-copy version of this online classic. Carefully revised in the light of reader's feedback, and now with answers to all the exercises, here you will find the essential material required to help you learn Prolog now.
Complex information structures are found in many disciplines including physics, genetics, biology and all branches of the information sciences. The current increasing, widespread use of information technology in all academic activities' emphasizes the need to understand how people construct and use such structures. The practices and activities found within the community of programmers provides a rich study area. The contents of this book are devoted to fundamental research that directly informs: the teaching community about some of the recent issues and problems that should help readers to increase their awareness when designing systems to support teaching, learning and using information technology; the psychology of the programming community about work in the area of learning to build, and debug programs; and the software engineering community in terms of the issues that implementors need to take into account when designing and building tools and environments for computer-based systems.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Learning and Optimization, LION 7, which was held in Catania, Italy, in January 2013. The 49 contributions presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 101 submissions. They explore the intersections and uncharted territories between machine learning, artificial intelligence, mathematical programming and algorithms for hard optimization problems.
Thinking in terms of facts and rules is perhaps one of the most common ways of approaching problem de?nition and problem solving both in everyday life and under more formal circumstances. The best known set of rules, the Ten Commandments have been accompanying us since the times of Moses; the Decalogue proved to be simple but powerful, concise and universal. It is logically consistent and complete. There are also many other attempts to impose rule-based regulations in almost all areas of life, including professional work, education, medical services, taxes, etc. Some most typical examples may include various codes (e.g. legal or tra?c code), regulations (especially military ones), and many systems of customary or informal rules. The universal nature of rule-based formulation of behavior or inference principles follows from the concept of rules being a simple and intuitive yet powerful concept of very high expressive power. Moreover, rules as such encode in fact functional aspects of behavior and can be used for modeling numerous phenomena.
The fourth edition of this bestselling textbook explains the principles of artificial intelligence (AI) and its practical applications. Using clear and concise language, it provides a solid grounding across the full spectrum of AI techniques, so that its readers can implement systems in their own domain of interest. The coverage includes knowledge-based intelligence, computational intelligence (including machine learning), and practical systems that use a combination of techniques. All the key techniques of AI are explained—including rule-based systems, Bayesian updating, certainty theory, fuzzy logic (types 1 and 2), agents, objects, frames, symbolic learning, case-based reasoning, genetic algorithms and other optimization techniques, shallow and deep neural networks, hybrids, and the Lisp, Prolog, and Python programming languages. The book also describes a wide range of practical applications in interpretation and diagnosis, design and selection, planning, and control. Fully updated and revised, Intelligent Systems for Engineers and Scientists: A Practical Guide to Artificial Intelligence, Fourth Edition features: • A new chapter on deep neural networks, reflecting the growth of machine learning as a key technique for AI • A new section on the use of Python, which has become the de facto standard programming language for many aspects of AI The rule-based and uncertainty-based examples in the book are compatible with the Flex toolkit by Logic Programming Associates (LPA) and its Flint extension for handling uncertainty and fuzzy logic. Readers of the book can download this commercial software for use free of charge. This resource and many others are available at the author’s website: adrianhopgood.com. Whether you are building your own intelligent systems, or you simply want to know more about them, this practical AI textbook provides you with detailed and up-to-date guidance.
Not long ago" Dennis Merritt wrote one of the best books that I know of about implementing expert systems in Prolog, and I was very glad he published it in our series. The only problem is there are still some unfortunate people around who do not know Prolog and are not sufficiently prepared either to read Merritt's book, or to use this extremely productive language, be it for knowledge-based work or even for everyday programming. Possibly this last statement may surprise you if you were under the impression that Prolog was an "artificial intelligence language" with very limited application potential. Please believe this editor's statement that quite the opposite is true: for at least four years, I have been using Prolog for every programming task in which I am given the option of choosing the language. Therefore, I 'am indeed happy that Dennis Merritt has written another good book on my language of choice, and that it meets the high standard he set with his prior book, Building Expert Systems in Prolog. All that remains for me to do is to wish you success and enjoyment when taking off on your Adventure in Prolog.
This book provides an introduction to the essential concepts in programming languages, using operational semantics techniques. It presents alternative programming language paradigms and gives an in-depth analysis of the most significant constructs in modern imperative, functional and logic programming languages. The book is designed to accompany lectures on programming language design for undergraduate students. Each chapter includes exercises which provide the opportunity to apply the concepts and techniques presented.
This volume presents a selection of the contributions to the Seventh Workshop on Informatics and Psychology. The theme of the workshop was Visualization in Human-Computer Interaction. Visualization is nowadays recognized as an important aspect of user-oriented human-computer interfaces. Both informatics and psychology are concerned with this topic. In informatics, the technology is being developed which makes visualization and interaction based on visual concepts feasible. Another important trend in informatics is the development of prototypical solutions. Visual programming, visual languages, graphical interfaces, visual representations and many other keywords characterize current efforts in this field. Psychologists are working on the question of how people represent knowledge visually and how they can take advantage of visual representations when solving tasks.
A Concise Introduction to Computation Models and Computability Theory provides an introduction to the essential concepts in computability, using several models of computation, from the standard Turing Machines and Recursive Functions, to the modern computation models inspired by quantum physics. An in-depth analysis of the basic concepts underlying each model of computation is provided. Divided into two parts, the first highlights the traditional computation models used in the first studies on computability: - Automata and Turing Machines; - Recursive functions and the Lambda-Calculus; - Logic-based computation models. and the second part covers object-oriented and interaction-based models. There is also a chapter on concurrency, and a final chapter on emergent computation models inspired by quantum mechanics. At the end of each chapter there is a discussion on the use of computation models in the design of programming languages.