Lawless Universe

Lawless Universe

Author: Joe Rosen

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801895807

Category: Philosophy

Page: 184

View: 737

Thought-provoking and controversial, Lawless Universe is a complement to, even an antidote for, books that create the misimpression that science can explain everything.

The Law-Governed Universe

The Law-Governed Universe

Author: John T. Roberts

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191565311

Category: Philosophy

Page: 420

View: 558

John T. Roberts presents and defends a radically new theory of laws of nature, the Measurability Account. Though consistent with a Humean ontology, Roberts's theory differs sharply from the most influential Humean theory of laws, David Lewis's Best-System Analysis. Unlike other Humean theories, the Measurability Account affirms that there is an important sense in which the laws govern the universe, rather than simply describing it economically. Yet unlike non-Humean theories, it requires only minimal metaphysical commitments. In this way, it combines the advantages of Humean and non-Humean approaches to laws, while avoiding the pitfalls of each. At the heart of the Measurability Account are two new ideas: that lawhood is not a property of facts but rather a role that a proposition can play within a scientific theory, and that what is essential to laws is that they guarantee the reliability of methods of measuring natural quantities. On the basis of these ideas, Roberts argues that we can offer an informative and compelling explanation of why laws have the peculiar counterfactual resilience that sets them apart from accidental uniformities.

The Thermodynamic Universe

The Thermodynamic Universe

Author: Burra Gautam Sidharth

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812812346

Category: Science

Page: 293

View: 547

Particle Physics and High Energy Physics have stagnated since the early 1970s. Now, the underlying principle of reductionism ? so sacred to twentieth-century physics ? is itself being questioned. This book examines these tumultuous developments that are leading to a paradigm shift and a new horizon for Physics.Presenting the new paradigm in fuzzy spacetime, this book is based on some 100 papers published in peer-reviewed journals including Foundations of Physics, Nuovo Cimento and The International Journal of Modern Physics (A&E), as well as two recently published books, The Chaotic Universe (Nova Science, New York) and The Universe of Fluctuations (Springer). The work had predicted correctly in advance epoch-turning observations, for example, that the Universe is accelerating with a small cosmological constant driven by dark energy when the prevalent line of thinking was the exact opposite. Similarly, the prediction of a minimum thermodynamic residual energy in the Universe has also been realized more recently. Further to a unified description of gravitation and electromagnetism via fluctuations, several other features are presented in complete agreement with experiments, in sharp contrast to the present ideas which are neither verifiable nor disprovable.

A Computable Universe

A Computable Universe

Author: Hector Zenil

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814447782

Category: Computers

Page: 856

View: 214

This volume, with a Foreword writer Sir Roger Penrose, discusses the foundations of computation in relation to nature. It focuses on two main questions: What is computation?How does nature compute? The contributors are world-renowned experts who have helped shape a cutting-edge computational understanding of the universe. They discuss computation in the world from a variety of perspectives, ranging from foundational concepts to pragmatic models to ontological conceptions and philosophical implications. The volume provides a state-of-the-art collection of technical papers and non-technical essays, representing a field that assumes information and computation to be key in understanding and explaining the basic structure underpinning physical reality. It also includes a new edition of Konrad Zuse's “Calculating Space” (the MIT translation), and a panel discussion transcription on the topic, featuring worldwide experts in quantum mechanics, physics, cognition, computation and algorithmic complexity. The volume is dedicated to the memory of Alan M Turing — the inventor of universal computation, on the 100th anniversary of his birth, and is part of the Turing Centenary celebrations. Contents:Foreword (R Penrose)PrefaceAcknowledgementsIntroducing the Computable Universe (H Zenil)Historical, Philosophical & Foundational Aspects of Computation:Origins of Digital Computing: Alan Turing, Charles Babbage, & Ada Lovelace (D Swade)Generating, Solving and the Mathematics of Homo Sapiens. E Post's Views on Computation (L De Mol)Machines (R Turner)Effectiveness (N Dershowitz & E Falkovich)Axioms for Computability: Do They Allow a Proof of Church's Thesis? (W Sieg)The Mathematician's Bias — and the Return to Embodied Computation (S B Cooper)Intuitionistic Mathematics and Realizability in the Physical World (A Bauer)What is Computation? Actor Model versus Turing's Model (C Hewitt)Computation in Nature & the Real World:Reaction Systems: A Natural Computing Approach to the Functioning of Living Cells (A Ehrenfeucht, J Kleijn, M Koutny & G Rozenberg)Bacteria, Turing Machines and Hyperbolic Cellular Automata (M Margenstern)Computation and Communication in Unorganized Systems (C Teuscher)The Many Forms of Amorphous Computational Systems (J Wiedermann)Computing on Rings (G J Martínez, A Adamatzky & H V McIntosh)Life as Evolving Software (G J Chaitin)Computability and Algorithmic Complexity in Economics (K V Velupillai & S Zambelli)Blueprint for a Hypercomputer (F A Doria)Computation & Physics & the Physics of Computation:Information-Theoretic Teleodynamics in Natural and Artificial Systems (A F Beavers & C D Harrison)Discrete Theoretical Processes (DTP) (E Fredkin)The Fastest Way of Computing All Universes (J Schmidhuber)The Subjective Computable Universe (M Hutter)What Is Ultimately Possible in Physics? (S Wolfram)Universality, Turing Incompleteness and Observers (K Sutner)Algorithmic Causal Sets for a Computational Spacetime (T Bolognesi)The Computable Universe Hypothesis (M P Szudzik)The Universe is Lawless or “Pantôn chrêmatôn metron anthrôpon einai” (C S Calude, F W Meyerstein & A Salomaa)Is Feasibility in Physics Limited by Fantasy Alone? (C S Calude & K Svozil)The Quantum, Computation & Information:What is Computation? (How) Does Nature Compute? (D Deutsch)The Universe as Quantum Computer (S Lloyd)Quantum Speedup and Temporal Inequalities for Sequential Actions (M Żukowski)The Contextual Computer (A Cabello)A Gödel-Turing Perspective on Quantum States Indistinguishable from Inside (T Breuer)When Humans Do Compute Quantum (P Zizzi)Open Discussion Section:Open Discussion on A Computable Universe (A Bauer, T Bolognesi, A Cabello, C S Calude, L De Mol, F Doria, E Fredkin, C Hewitt, M Hutter, M Margenstern, K Svozil, M Szudzik, C Teuscher, S Wolfram & H Zenil)Live Panel Discussion (transcription):What is Computation? (How) Does Nature Compute? (C S Calude, G J Chaitin, E Fredkin, A J Leggett, R de Ruyter, T Toffoli & S Wolfram)Zuse's Calculating Space:Calculating Space (Rechnender Raum) (K Zuse)Afterword to Konrad Zuse's Calculating Space (A German & H Zenil) Readership: Graduate students who are specialized researchers in computer science, information theory, quantum theory and modern philosophy and the general public who are interested in these subject areas. Keywords:Digital Physics;Computational Universe;Digital Philosophy;Reality Theories of the Universe;Models of the World;Thring Computation RandomnessKey Features:The authors are all prominent researchersNo competing titlesState-of-the-art collection of technical papers and non-technical essays

The Collapse of Chaos

The Collapse of Chaos

Author: Ian Stewart

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 9780141938288

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 995

Do we live in a simple or a complex universe? Jack Cohen and Ian Stewart explore the ability of complicated rules to generate simple behaviour in nature through 'the collapse of chaos'. 'The most startling, thought-provoking book I've read all year. I was pleased to learn that most of the things I thought I knew were wrong' -- Terry Pratchett

Probability and Randomness

Probability and Randomness

Author: Andre? I?U?r?evich Khrennikov

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9781783267972

Category: Science

Page: 299

View: 267

"Creating a rigorous mathematical theory of randomness is far from being complete, even in the classical case. Interrelation of Classical and Quantum Randomness rectifies this and introduces mathematical formalisms of classical and quantum probability and randomness with brief discussion of their interrelation and interpretational and foundational issues. The book presents the essentials of classical approaches to randomness, enlightens their successes and problems, and then proceeds to essentials of quantum randomness. Its wide-ranging and comprehensive scope makes it suitable for researchers in mathematical physics, probability and statistics at any level"--

A Half-Century of Physical Asymptotics and Other Diversions

A Half-Century of Physical Asymptotics and Other Diversions

Author: Michael Berry

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789813221222

Category:

Page: 724

View: 393

Michael Berry is a theoretical physicist who has contributed to a wide variety of areas in quantum mechanics, optics and related mathematics, linked by the geometrical aspects of waves, especially phase. This collection of his selected published and unpublished papers, reviews, tributes to other scientists, speeches and other works ranges from the technical to the popular. It is organized by the themes of his significant scientific contributions. Detailed introductions emphasize the rich connections between the different themes. An essential read for physicists, mathematicians, students and philosophers of science.

The Geology of the Modern Cancer Epidemic

The Geology of the Modern Cancer Epidemic

Author: Tai Lahans

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814436328

Category: Medical

Page: 538

View: 989

The book covers lung, colorectal, breast, prostate, and virally-caused cancers. It interweaves conventional medical knowledge of these cancers with modern realities of everyday life we all live, and with Chinese medicine interpretations and strategies for treating probable pre-cancerous conditions.

The Deepteachings of Merlyn

The Deepteachings of Merlyn

Author: Douglas Monroe

Publisher: Kima Global Publishers

ISBN: 9781920533069

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 464

View: 176

This is the third and final volume of Douglas Monroe's Merlyn series. The Dark Age of Druidism of Merlyn was entirely based upon the teachings of the Pheryllt, a British Megalithic Priesthood whose practices and philosophies set the essence of what later Druidiwm would become - set, quite literally, in stone. Drawing once again upon the 16th Century Book of Pheryllt in addition to countless other volumes from Plato to Einstein, the author clearly establishes that the answers to nature's deepest questions lie well within our capacity to grasp - providing we understand how to look at the completed picture.Does the mind possess supernormal abilities? Does individuality survive bodily death? Is rebirth the evolutionary design of a Creator? As a young military commander in training, Arthur now faces his deepest trials as he challenges Merlyn with these three ultimate questions. Alongside him, begin your own quest to search out - and find! - answers to these and many other age-old mysteries.