‘Biodiversity’ at its simplest, refers to the variety of species inhabiting Planet Earth. It is essential to the well-being of the planet. There is now a scientific consensus around the current ongoing crisis in biodiversity arising from both climate change and human activities. Experts believe we are in the middle of a mass extinction of biodiversity with devastating consequences for our planet. Accounting for Biodiversity explores the need for companies to actively protect, conserve and improve biodiversity within their sphere of operation. The 14 chapters written by a selected team of experts investigate the ways in which companies are embracing their responsibility through a variety of biodiversity initiatives and innovative models designed to improve the recording, reporting and valuing of biodiversity. Global case studies look at biodiversity accounting in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe and South America. Overall, this book provides a comprehensive set of reflections on accounting for biodiversity and recommendations for the future. This book is essential reading for all those interested in the contribution that accounting can make to the preservation of biodiversity. As we see increasing awareness of the importance of sustainability and ecological responsibility in business activity it is relevant and should prove informative to students, managers, accountants and those in business more generally. It is also important for all those interested in conserving biodiversity.
The fate of much of the world's terrestrial biodiversity depends upon our ability to improve the management of forest ecosystems that have already been substantially modified by humans. Monitoring is an essential ingredient in meeting this challenge, allowing us to measure the impact of different human activities on biodiversity and identify more responsible ways of managing the environment. Nevertheless many biodiversity monitoring programs are criticised as being little more than 'tick the box' compliance exercises that waste precious resources and erode the credibility of science in the eyes of decision makers and conservation investors. The purpose of this book is to examine the factors that make biodiversity monitoring programs fail or succeed. The first two sections lay out the context and importance of biodiversity monitoring, and shed light on some of the key challenges that have confounded many efforts to date. The third and main section presents an operational framework for developing monitoring programs that have the potential to make a meaningful contribution to forest management. Discussion covers the scoping, design and implementation stages of a forest biodiversity monitoring program, including defining the purpose, goals and objectives of monitoring, indicator selection, and the process of data collection, analysis and interpretation. Underpinning the book is the belief that biodiversity monitoring should be viewed not as a stand-alone exercise in surveillance but rather as an explicit mechanism for learning about how to improve opportunities for conservation. To be successful in this task, monitoring needs to be grounded in clear goals and objectives, effective in generating reliable assessments of changes in biodiversity and realistic in light of real-world financial, logistical and social constraints.
Environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) is an important and often obligatory part of proposing or launching any development project. Delivering a successful ESIA needs not only an understanding of the theory but also a detailed knowledge of the methods for carrying out the processes required. Riki Therivel and Graham Wood bring together the latest advice on best practice from experienced practitioners to ensure an ESIA is carried out effectively and efficiently. This new edition: • explains how an ESIA works and how it should be carried out • demonstrates the links between socio-economic, cultural, environmental and ecological systems and assessments • incorporates the World Bank’s IFC performance standards, and best practice examples from developing as well as developed countries • includes new chapters on emerging ESIA topics such as climate change, ecosystem services, cultural impacts, resource efficiency, land acquisition and involuntary resettlement. Invaluable to undergraduate and MSc students of ESIA on planning, ecology, geography and environment courses, this internationally oriented fourth edition of Methods of Environmental and Social Impact Assessment is also of great use to planners, ESIA practitioners and professionals seeking to update their skills.
This handbook outlines the main methods and techniques, both modern and traditional, used to measure insect diversity. With the growing relevance of insect conservation in nature, this guide should assist students in understanding a complicated field.
Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is now firmly established as an important and often obligatory part of proposing or launching any development project. Delivering a successful EIA needs not only an understanding of the theory but also a detailed knowledge of the methods for carrying out the processes required. Peter Morris and Riki Therivel bring together the latest advice on best practice from experienced practitioners to ensure an EIA is carried out correctly. This new edition: • explains how an EIA works and how it should be carried out • demonstrates the relationship of the EIA to socio-economic, environmental and ecological systems • includes completely updated legislative and policy contexts • has added explanations of shared and integrative methods including a new chapter on EIA and sustainability. Invaluable to undergraduate and MSc students of EIA in planning, ecology, geography and environment courses, this third edition of Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment is also of great use to planners, EIA practitioners and professionals seeking to update their skills.
This practical handbook of reptile field ecology and conservation brings together a distinguished, international group of reptile researchers to provide a state-of-the-art review of the many new and exciting techniques used to study reptiles. The authors describe ecological sampling techniques and how they are implemented to monitor the conservation status and population trends of snakes, lizards, tuatara, turtles, and crocodilians throughout the world. Emphasis is placed on the extent of statistical inference and the biases associated with different techniques and analyses. The chapters focus on the application of field research and data analysis for achieving an understanding of reptile life history, population dynamics, movement patterns, thermal ecology, conservation status, and the relationship between reptiles and their environment. The book emphasises the need for thorough planning, and demonstrates how a multi-dimensional approach incorporates information related to morphology, genetics, molecular biology, epidemiology, statistical modelling, animal welfare, and biosecurity. Although accentuating field sampling, sections on experimental applications in laboratories and zoos, thermal ecology, genetics, landscape ecology, disease and biosecurity, and management options are included. Much of this information is scattered in the scientific literature or not readily available, and the intention is to provide an affordable, comprehensive synthesis for use by graduate students, researchers, and practising conservationists worldwide.
The biological sciences cover a broad array of literature types, from younger fields like molecular biology with its reliance on recent journal articles, genomic databases, and protocol manuals to classic fields such as taxonomy with its scattered literature found in monographs and journals from the past three centuries. Using the Biological Literature: A Practical Guide, Fourth Edition is an annotated guide to selected resources in the biological sciences, presenting a wide-ranging list of important sources. This completely revised edition contains numerous new resources and descriptions of all entries including textbooks. The guide emphasizes current materials in the English language and includes retrospective references for historical perspective and to provide access to the taxonomic literature. It covers both print and electronic resources including monographs, journals, databases, indexes and abstracting tools, websites, and associations—providing users with listings of authoritative informational resources of both classical and recently published works. With chapters devoted to each of the main fields in the basic biological sciences, this book offers a guide to the best and most up-to-date resources in biology. It is appropriate for anyone interested in searching the biological literature, from undergraduate students to faculty, researchers, and librarians. The guide includes a supplementary website dedicated to keeping URLs of electronic and web-based resources up to date, a popular feature continued from the third edition.
This document is one of seven guidelines developed to provide standards and recommendations for management of the country’s natural assets. The Guidelines for Biodiversity Monitoring is intended for conservation scientists, managers and stakeholders involved in the management of ecosystems. It specifically provides support for natural resource managers, protected area planners, decision-makers and managers, staff of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), NGOs and universities, with a view to elaborating adequate and realistic monitoring plans for individual steppe protected areas, in order to establish a working monitoring system for steppe ecosystems. The Guidelines provide a methodology and structure to set up clear indicators and targets for a comprehensive monitoring system for ecosystems. They offer a working basis for national and local experts and specialists, and support the steps towards a comprehensive monitoring scheme. They constitute the first stage in a longer process of defining clear objectives and indicators for individual pillars of monitoring for the ecosystems and their components.
This study presents authentic data compiled from field experiments and investigations, and provides a point of reference for any future changes associated with anthropogenic activity in semiarid ecosystems. Three years of continuous and rigorous empirical research on biodiversity (from phytoplankton to higher plants and from zooplankton to higher animals – all flora and fauna) in India’s semiarid region have culminated in this work. Though there are many studies available on issues related to biodiversity, the majority cover either specific groups of plants or groups of animals; with the exception of this book, studies that include all flora and fauna including the phyto- and zooplanktons in a given ecosystem are not readily available. Further, the book focuses on an extremely important topic, firstly because semiarid landscapes are highly vulnerable to climate change, and secondly because other developmental activities will be undertaken in the region in an effort to meet its energy requirements. As such, the results of the current study will provide a standard protocol for subsequent monitoring and mapping of biodiversity for conservation and management. The book explores, quantifies and surveys plant and animal species from aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, assessing and quantitatively analyzing the diversity indices of different vegetation strata. Further, it investigates the conservation status of each species (flora and fauna) in keeping with IUCN categories. The study also examines landscape dynamics using RS and GIS for vegetation analysis, and discusses traditional ecological knowledge related to the use, conservation and management of biodiversity. As such, it offers a unique and valuable resource not only for researchers from the environmental/ecological sciences but also for conservationists and policymakers.
This Handbook presents state-of-the-art methodological guidance and discussion of international practice related to the integration of biodiversity and ecosystem services in impact assessment, featuring contributions from leading researchers and practitioners the world over. Its multidisciplinary approach covers contributions across five continents to broaden the scope of the field both thematically and geographically.