Agricultural production is one of the main keys to the development of healthy societies. It is anticipated that agricultural systems will increasingly have to contend with temperature, humidity and water stress in the near future. This makes the need to increase the efficiency of land and water use ever more urgent. The control and design of greenhouses allows to increase dramatically the quality of crops and extend the cultivation period year-round. A properly designed autonomous greenhouse based on hydroponics can greatly reduce the amounts of nutrients and energy expended in agricultural production. This book deals with different types of greenhouses, materials, structures, advanced control techniques and tendencies that are needed for designing and controlling an advanced greenhouse. The control system is presented as an integral system which covers the explanation of basic and advanced concepts for a real time controller. Also, structural analysis is introduced, whereby mechanical design is regarded as a key factor. The book incorporates simulations and experimental results, and utilizes LabVIEW and ADAMS software. Finally, it provides a perspective on the present state and future of greenhouses globally. Written in a highly accessible manner, this book will prove useful to horticulturalists, agricultural engineers, greenhouse engineers and designers. Its easy-to-absorb contents are also suitable for (under)graduate students and researchers in agricultural and electronic engineering, horticulture, crop cultivation and soft computing.
This book features review articles that analyze current agricultural issues and knowledge. It also proposes novel, environmentally friendly solutions that are based on integrated information from such fields as agroecology, soil science, molecular biology, chemistry, toxicology, economics and the social sciences. Coverage examines ways to produce food and energy in a sustainable way for humans and their children. Inside, readers will find articles that explore climate change, food security, water pollution, soil erosion, fertility loss, pest control and biodiversity depletion. Instead of solving problems using the classical painkiller approach, which seeks only to limit negative impacts, sustainable agriculture treats challenges at their source. Because most societal issues are in fact intertwined, global and fast-developing, sustainable agriculture will bring solutions that have the potential to build a more peaceful world. This book will help scientists, decision-makers, professors, farmers and politicians build safer agriculture, energy and food systems for future generations.
While working on the second edition of this book, an attempt was made to make this text book more valuable to the students and teachers as well. The whole book received a complete change in layout and presentation. Several new illustrations were added and many old illustrations were modified to give students a better understanding of the subject. Also based on the feedback by the students and teachers, more worked out examples were added. Answer keys to the exercise numerical problems were incorporated for the benefit of students. Additional information on Greenhouse Heatin (12th Chapter) with numerical examples is also included to provide insight to the engineering graduate students on different possibilities of heat requirement calculations of greenhouses.
The change in greenhouse operation and technology in the last 20 years has been unprecedented. Photoperiodic control, mist propagation, green house cooling, clean stock programs, CO injection, to name a few, have 2 all been inaugurated as regular greenhouse practices in this time. The introduction of new markets, new production centers, shifts in public attitudes, and the realization that greenhouse production is not simply growing crops, but the management of an enterprise in which people work, h~ve combined to make this agricultural practice a challenging and rewarding vocation. The greenhouse grower, manager, and student who are training for this vocation have not had an up-to-date text book for many years. It has been our goal to bring both published and unpublished work together in this book, and to provide a bench mark from which we can continue to move forward. It is not until a process of writing a text begins that one fully realizes how far we have come-and where we need to go. It is with some sadness that we realize that this book is not likely to remain long as an expression of the state-of-the-art. We do not expect it to be easy reading; for new terms, new technology, and new ways of doing things are not always easy.
Models are fundamental for estimating the possible costs and effectiveness of different policies for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. There is a wide array of models to perform such analysis, differing in the level of technological detail, treatment of technological progress, spatial and sector details, and representation of the interaction of the energy sector to the overall economy and environment. These differences impact model results, including cost estimates. More fundamentally, these models differ as to how they represent fundamental processes that have a large impact on policy analysis--such as how different models represent technological learning and cost reductions that come through increasing production volumes, or how different models represent baseline conditions. Reliable estimates of the costs and potential impacts on the United States economy of various emissions reduction and other mitigation strategies are critical to the development of the federal climate change research and development portfolio. At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Academies organized a workshop, summarized in this volume, to consider some of these types of modeling issues.
The two-volume set IFIP AICT 392 and 393 constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the 6th IFIP TC 5, SIG 5.1 International Conference on Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture, CCTA 2012, held in Zhangjiajie, China, in October 2012. The 108 revised papers presented were carefully selected from numerous submissions. They cover a wide range of interesting theories and applications of information technology in agriculture, including Internet of things and cloud computing; simulation models and decision-support systems for agricultural production; smart sensor, monitoring, and control technology; traceability and e-commerce technology; computer vision, computer graphics, and virtual reality; the application of information and communication technology in agriculture; and universal information service technology and service systems development in rural areas. The 53 papers included in the first volume focus on decision support systems, intelligent systems, and artificial intelligence applications.