The chapters of the book are evolved from presentations made by selected participants at the 2005 BISC International Special Event, held at the University of California at Berkely. The papers include reports from the different front of soft computing in various industries and address the problems of different fields of research in fuzzy logic, fuzzy set and soft computing. The book provides a collection of forty-four articles in two volumes.

The chapters of the book are evolved from presentations made by selected participants at the 2005 BISC International Special Event, held at the University of California at Berkely. The papers include reports from the different front of soft computing in various industries and address the problems of different fields of research in fuzzy logic, fuzzy set and soft computing. The book provides a collection of forty-four articles in two volumes.

This book describes new methods for building intelligent systems using type-2 fuzzy logic and soft computing (SC) techniques. The authors extend the use of fuzzy logic to a higher order, which is called type-2 fuzzy logic. Combining type-2 fuzzy logic with traditional SC techniques, we can build powerful hybrid intelligent systems that can use the advantages that each technique offers. This book is intended to be a major reference tool and can be used as a textbook.

This book is the first ever to deal exclusively with this class of operations. It offers an introduction to Fuzzy Implications, an analytical study of them, and an algebraic exploration into the structures that exist on the set of all FIs.

Recently many researchers are working on cluster analysis as a main tool for exploratory data analysis and data mining. A notable feature is that specialists in di?erent ?elds of sciences are considering the tool of data clustering to be useful. A major reason is that clustering algorithms and software are ?exible in thesensethatdi?erentmathematicalframeworksareemployedinthealgorithms and a user can select a suitable method according to his application. Moreover clusteringalgorithmshavedi?erentoutputsrangingfromtheolddendrogramsof agglomerativeclustering to more recent self-organizingmaps. Thus, a researcher or user can choose an appropriate output suited to his purpose,which is another ?exibility of the methods of clustering. An old and still most popular method is the K-means which use K cluster centers. A group of data is gathered around a cluster center and thus forms a cluster. The main subject of this book is the fuzzy c-means proposed by Dunn and Bezdek and their variations including recent studies. A main reasonwhy we concentrate on fuzzy c-means is that most methodology and application studies infuzzy clusteringusefuzzy c-means,andfuzzy c-meansshouldbe consideredto beamajortechniqueofclusteringingeneral,regardlesswhetheroneisinterested in fuzzy methods or not. Moreover recent advances in clustering techniques are rapid and we requirea new textbook that includes recent algorithms.We should also note that several books have recently been published but the contents do not include some methods studied herein.

The chapters of the book are evolved from presentations made by selected participants at the 2005 BISC International Special Event, held at the University of California at Berkely. The papers include reports from the different front of soft computing in various industries and address the problems of different fields of research in fuzzy logic, fuzzy set and soft computing. The book provides a collection of forty-four articles in two volumes.

This book explores the intersection of fuzzy mathematics and the spatial modeling of preferences in political science. Beginning with a critique of conventional modeling approaches predicated on Cantor set theoretical assumptions, the authors outline the potential benefits of a fuzzy approach to the study of ambiguous or uncertain preference profiles. This is a good text for a graduate seminar in formal modeling. It is also suitable as an introductory text in fuzzy mathematics.

This volume is a compilation of the best papers presented at the First International Symposium on Fuzzy and Rough Sets (ISFUROS 2006) held in Santa Clara, Cuba. They contain valuable contributions both in the theoretical field and in several application domains such as intelligent control, data analysis, decision making and machine learning, just to name a few. Together, they capture the huge potential of the aforementioned methodologies.

Monte Carlo Methods in Fuzzy Optimization is a clear and didactic book about Monte Carlo methods using random fuzzy numbers to obtain approximate solutions to fuzzy optimization problems. The book includes various solved problems such as fuzzy linear programming, fuzzy regression, fuzzy inventory control, fuzzy game theory, and fuzzy queuing theory. The book will appeal to engineers, researchers, and students in Fuzziness and applied mathematics.

The chapters of the book are evolved from presentations made by selected participants at the 2005 BISC International Special Event, held at the University of California at Berkely. The papers include reports from the different front of soft computing in various industries and address the problems of different fields of research in fuzzy logic, fuzzy set and soft computing. The book provides a collection of forty-four articles in two volumes.

Operations research often solves deterministic optimization problems based on elegantand conciserepresentationswhereall parametersarepreciselyknown. In the face of uncertainty, probability theory is the traditional tool to be appealed for, and stochastic optimization is actually a signi?cant sub-area in operations research. However, the systematic use of prescribed probability distributions so as to cope with imperfect data is partially unsatisfactory. First, going from a deterministic to a stochastic formulation, a problem may becomeintractable. Agoodexampleiswhengoingfromdeterministictostoch- tic scheduling problems like PERT. From the inception of the PERT method in the 1950’s, it was acknowledged that data concerning activity duration times is generally not perfectly known and the study of stochastic PERT was launched quite early. Even if the power of today’s computers enables the stochastic PERT to be addressed to a large extent, still its solutions often require simplifying assumptions of some kind. Another di?culty is that stochastic optimization problems produce solutions in the average. For instance, the criterion to be maximized is more often than not expected utility. This is not always a meaningful strategy. In the case when the underlying process is not repeated a lot of times, let alone being one-shot, it is not clear if this criterion is realistic, in particular if probability distributions are subjective. Expected utility was proposed as a rational criterion from ?rst principles by Savage. In his view, the subjective probability distribution was - sically an artefact useful to implement a certain ordering of solutions.

Softcomputing techniques play a vital role in the industry. This book presents several important papers presented by some of the well-known scientists from all over the globe. The main techniques of soft computing presented include ant-colony optimization, artificial immune systems, artificial neural networks, Bayesian models. The book includes various examples and application domains such as bioinformatics, detection of phishing attacks, and fault detection of motors.