Ecosystem Services from Agriculture and Agroforestry

Ecosystem Services from Agriculture and Agroforestry

Author: Fabrice DeClerk

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136537615

Category: Nature

Page: 449

View: 800

Agricultural systems are no longer evaluated solely on the basis of the food they provide, but also on their capacity to limit impacts on the environment, such as soil conservation, water quality and biodiversity conservation, as well as their contribution to mitigating and adapting to climate change. In order to cope with these multiple service functions, they must internalize the costs and benefits of their environmental impact. Payments for ecosystem services are hoped to encourage and promote sustainable practices via financial incentives. The authors show that while the principle is straightforward, the practice is much more complicated. Whereas scenic beauty and protection of water sources provide benefits to the local population, carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation can be considered international public goods, rendering potential payment schemes more complex. Few examples exist where national or international bodies have been able to set up viable mechanisms that compensate agricultural systems for the environmental services they provide. However this book provides several examples of successful programs, and aims to transfer them to other regions of the world. The authors show that a product can be sold if it is clearly quantified, there exists a means to determine the service's values, and there is a willing buyer. The first two sections of the book present methodological issues related to the quantification and marketing of ecosystem services from agriculture, including agroforestry. The third and final section presents case studies of practical payments for ecosystem services and experiences in Central and South America, and draws some lessons learnt for effective and sustainable development of ecosystem services compensation mechanisms.

Agroforestry and Ecosystem Services

Agroforestry and Ecosystem Services

Author: Ranjith P. Udawatta

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030800604

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 510

View: 453

This book is a state-of-the-art compilation of the latest information on ecosystem services of agroforestry. The last two decades have seen a surge in literature on the ecosystem services of sustainable agriculture practices, including that of agroforestry; however, compilation and synthesis of such information from agroforestry have been limited. This book fills that void by bringing in a number of experts from around the world. In addition to presenting the multiple dimensions of ecosystem services provided by major agroforestry practices, the book also offers case studies from both tropical and temperate regions of the world. Information from this book can be used to design land management practices for climate change mitigation, ecosystem benefits, agricultural productivity and sustainability, and for survival and profitability of family farms and to conserve biodiversity. While synthesizing information of the biophysical aspects of ecosystem services, the book also outlines the socioeconomic and policy dimensions, including appropriate incentive models to enhance adoption of agroforestry so that society at large can enjoy these important benefits

Climate Change-Resilient Agriculture and Agroforestry

Climate Change-Resilient Agriculture and Agroforestry

Author: Paula Castro

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319750040

Category: Science

Page: 520

View: 201

This book collects wide-ranging contributions such as case studies, reviews, reports on technological developments, outputs of research/studies, and examples of successful projects, presenting current knowledge and raising awareness to help the agriculture and forestry sectors find solutions for mitigating climate variability and adapting to change. It brings the topic of ecosystem services closer to education and learning, as targeted by the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Climate change and its impacts on agriculture and agroforestry have been observed across the world during the last 50 years. Increasing temperatures, droughts, biotic stresses and the impacts of extreme events have continuously decreased agroforestry systems’ resilience to the effects of climate change. As such, there is a need to adapt farming and agroforestry systems so as to make them better able to handle ever-changing climate conditions, and to preserve habitats and ecosystems services.

Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services

Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services

Author: Meine Van Noordwijk

Publisher:

ISBN: 3036517421

Category:

Page: 504

View: 724

As a dynamic interface between agriculture and forestry, agroforestry has only recently been formally recognized as a relevant part of land use with 'trees outside forest' in important parts of the world-but not everywhere yet. The Sustainable Development Goals have called attention to the need for the multifunctionality of landscapes that simultaneously contribute to multiple goals. In the UN decade of landscape restoration, as well as in response to the climate change urgency and biodiversity extinction crisis, an increase in global tree cover is widely seen as desirable, but its management by farmers or forest managers remains contested. Agroforestry research relates tree-soil-crop- livestock interactions at the plot level with landscape-level analysis of social-ecological systems and efforts to transcend the historical dichotomy between forest and agriculture as separate policy domains. An 'ecosystem services' perspective quantifies land productivity, flows of water, net greenhouse gas emissions, and biodiversity conservation, and combines an 'actor' perspective (farmer, landscape manager) with that of 'downstream' stakeholders (in the same watershed, ecologically conscious consumers elsewhere, global citizens) and higher-level regulators designing land-use policies and spatial zoning.

Ecological Intensification of Natural Resources for Sustainable Agriculture

Ecological Intensification of Natural Resources for Sustainable Agriculture

Author: Manoj Kumar Jhariya

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789813342033

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 655

View: 678

Ecological intensification involves using natural resources such as land, water, soil nutrients, and other biotic and abiotic variables in a sustainable way to achieve high performance and efficiency in agricultural yield with minimal damage to the agroecosystems. With increasing food demand there is high pressure on agricultural systems. The concept of ecological intensification presents the mechanisms of ensuring high agricultural productivity by restoration the soil health and landscape ecosystem services. The approach involves the replacement of anthropogenic inputs with eco-friendly and sustainable alternates. Effective ecological intensification requires an understanding of ecosystems services, ecosystem's components, and flow of resources in the agroecosystems. Also, awareness of land use patterns, socio-economic factors, and needs of the farmer community plays a crucial role. It is therefore essential to understand the interaction of ecosystem constituents within the extensive agricultural landscape. The editors critically examined the status of ecological stress in agroecosystems and address the issue of ecological intensification for natural resources management. Drawing upon research and examples from around the world, the book is offering an up-to-date account, and insight into the approaches that can be put in practice for poly-cropping systems and landscape-scale management to increase the stability of agricultural production systems to achieve ‘Ecological resilience’. It further discusses the role of farmer communities and the importance of their awareness about the issues. This book will be of interest to teachers, researchers, climate change scientists, capacity builders, and policymakers. Also, the book serves as additional reading material for undergraduate and graduate students of agriculture, forestry, ecology, agronomy, soil science, and environmental sciences. National and international agricultural scientists, policymakers will also find this to be a useful read for green future.

Agroforestry

Agroforestry

Author: Jagdish Chander Dagar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811076503

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 879

View: 421

Agroforestry (AF) is a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resources management system that, by integrating trees on farms, ranches, and in other landscapes, diversifies and increases production and promotes social, economic, and environmental benefits for land users. Further, it is receiving increasing attention as a sustainable land-management option worldwide because of its ecological, economic, and social attributes. Advances have been achieved by building on past research accomplishments and expanding AF’s stakeholder base, which now includes private/public partnerships, communities, ecologists, farmers, indigenous peoples, and policymakers in both temperate and tropical countries. AF has now been recognized as a valuable problem-solving approach to ensuring food security and rebuilding resilient rural environments. Recent studies have shown that more than 1 billion hectares of agricultural land have more than 10% tree cover. Of this area, 160 million hectares have more than 50% tree cover. Agricultural ecosystems can be further improved through AF to achieve environmental restoration, greater farm productivity, and key ecological services, including climate change mitigation and adaptation for improved rural livelihood. In fact, it is largely considered synonymous with climate smart agriculture and a remedy for many modern environmental challenges. Consequently, AF’s knowledge base is being expanded at a rapid rate, as illustrated by the increasing number and quality of scientific publications on various forms and different aspects of AF. This book offers state-of-the-art information on the fundamental concepts and history of AF and its evolution as a science, presenting a wealth of advanced research results and evaluations relating to different aspects of AF. Accordingly, it will be useful for a broad readership, including students, foresters, farmers, local communities, indigenous peoples, civil society institutions, media, policymakers and the general public.

Agroforestry for Degraded Landscapes

Agroforestry for Degraded Landscapes

Author: Jagdish Chander Dagar

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811541360

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 554

View: 261

This book presents various aspects of agroforestry research and development, as well as the latest trends in degraded landscape management. Over the last four decades, agroforestry research (particularly on degraded landscapes) has evolved into an essential problem-solving science, e.g. in terms of sustaining agricultural productivity, improving soil health and biodiversity, enhancing ecosystem services, supporting carbon sequestration and mitigating climate change. This book examines temperate and tropical agroforestry systems around the world, focusing on traditional and modern practices and technologies used to rehabilitate degraded lands. It covers the latest research advances, trends and challenges in the utilization and reclamation of degraded lands, e.g. urban and peri-urban agroforestry, reclamation of degraded landscapes, tree-based multi-enterprise agriculture, domestication of high-value halophytes, afforestation of coastal areas, preserving mangroves and much more. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable asset for a broad range of stakeholders including farmers, scientists, researchers, educators, students, development/extension agents, environmentalists, policy/decision makers, and government and non-government organizations.

Governing the Provision of Ecosystem Services

Governing the Provision of Ecosystem Services

Author: Roldan Muradian

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400751767

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 484

View: 192

Founded on the core notion that we have reached a turning point in the governance, and thus the conservation, of ecosystems and the environment, this edited volume features more than 20 original chapters, each informed by the paradigm shift in the sector over the last decade. Where once the emphasis was on strategies for conservation, enacted through instruments of control such as planning and ‘polluter pays’ legislation, more recent developments have shown a shift towards incentive-based arrangements aimed at those responsible for providing the environmental services enabled by such ecosystems. Encouraging shared responsibility for watershed management, developed in Costa Rica, is a prime example, and the various interests involved in its instauration in Java are one of the subjects examined here.

An Introduction to Agroforestry

An Introduction to Agroforestry

Author: P. K. Ramachandran Nair

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030753580

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 666

View: 912

Agroforestry – the practice of growing trees and crops in interacting combinations – is recognized the world over as an integrated approach to sustainable land-use. Agroforestry systems, being multifunctional, facilitate not only the production of food and wood products but also provide a variety of ecosystem services such as climate-change mitigation, biodiversity conservation, and soil quality improvement. Agroforestry research has made rapid strides since organized efforts started in the late 1970s. Today, a vast body of scientific knowledge and an impressive array of publications on agroforestry are available. Four World Congresses on Agroforestry conducted once every five years since 2004 have brought together the global community of agroforestry professionals and practitioners to share and discuss the emerging trends and paradigm shifts in this field. The fifth Congress is scheduled to be held in Québec, Canada. However, a comprehensive college-level textbook incorporating these research findings did not exist until this book was first published. The first edition of this book in 1993 (Nair, P. K. R., 1993) is out of print and somewhat dated. This revised edition, with emphasis on the scientific developments during the past more than four decades, addresses this long-felt need.

Sharing Ecosystem Services

Sharing Ecosystem Services

Author: Osamu Saito

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811380679

Category: Science

Page: 265

View: 265

Using “the sharing paradigm” as a guiding concept, this book demonstrates that “sharing” has much greater potential to make rural society resilient, sustainable and inclusive through enriching all four sharing dimensions: informal, mediated, communal and commercial sharing. The chapters are divided into two parts, one that focuses on case studies of the sharing ecosystem services in Japan, the other on case studies from around the world including in the regions of Africa, Asia-Pacific, South America and Europe. Reflecting the recent growing attention to sharing concept and its application to economic and urban context, this publication explores opportunities and challenges to build more resilient and sustainable society in harmony with nature by critical examination of sharing practices in rural landscapes and seascapes around the world. This book introduces not only traditional communal and non-market sharing practices in different rural areas, but also new forms of sharing through integration of traditional practices and modern science and technologies.

Agroforestry

Agroforestry

Author: Gopal Shukla

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9781839627293

Category: Science

Page: 108

View: 453

The book is a collection of chapters that deal with agroforestry systems on small farms. It compiles a variety of suitable agroforestry systems that can both sequester carbon and mitigate climate change while also providing socio-economic benefits. The book also discusses the ways in which small landholders can use agroforestry to combat land degradation.

Agroforestry for Degraded Landscapes

Agroforestry for Degraded Landscapes

Author: Jagdish Chander Dagar

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811568077

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 475

View: 417

This book presents various aspects of agroforestry research and development, as well as the latest trends in degraded landscape management. Over the last four decades, agroforestry research (particularly on degraded landscapes) has evolved into an essential problem-solving science, e.g. in terms of sustaining agricultural productivity, improving soil health and biodiversity, enhancing ecosystem services, supporting carbon sequestration and mitigating climate change. This book examines temperate and tropical agroforestry systems around the world, focusing on traditional and modern practices and technologies used to rehabilitate degraded lands. It covers the latest research advances, trends and challenges in the utilization and reclamation of degraded lands, e.g. urban and peri-urban agroforestry, reclamation of degraded landscapes, tree-based multi-enterprise agriculture, domestication of high-value halophytes, afforestation of coastal areas, preserving mangroves and much more. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable asset for a broad range of stakeholders including farmers, scientists, researchers, educators, students, development/extension agents, environmentalists, policy/decision makers, and government and non-government organizations.