Many developing countries find themselves in seemingly intractable internal conflicts, hindering them from moving on into a more stable, secure and wealthy environment. It seems that underdevelopment and conflict go hand in hand. Underdevelopment most often implies large streams of development aid channeled into countries at war. The work evaluates to what extent an increase in development aid affects conflict ripeness. The research shows that the effect is ambivalent: it depends on the conditions of provision whether it is positive or negative. In general, an ‘increase in development aid’ decreases the intensity of one of the ingredients to conflict ripeness: the mutually hurting stalemate. However, if embedded into a smart strategy, an ‘increase in development aid’ enhances the second ingredient to conflict ripeness: the sense of a way out. By that it counterbalances the negative effect and thus fosters the phase of ripeness, creating an ideal starting position for a subsequent peace process.
How can peace be brokered between warring sides in conflicts over self-determination and what roles do external third parties play? This book is the first of its kind to thoroughly explore the effectiveness of aid conditionality and other external tools that third parties -- from states and regional organizations to NGOs -- bring to the table in peace negotiations. Surveying the existing academic debate on incentives and peace conditionality, the author first identifies the gaps between theory and the needs of third party mediators and facilitators. Analysing in depth the negotiation processes in Sri Lanka (Eelam), Indonesia (Aceh), and the Philippines (Mindanao) as case studies, policy tools likely to be most effective are then identified and policy recommendations developed. This book is an invaluable resource for students, scholars, and practitioners alike.
Understanding the Lord's Resistance Army Insurgency provides a concise overview of the LRA, which has, for almost 30 years, conducted untold atrocities across the central African nations of Uganda, Southern Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic. This book examines the LRA's emergence and evolution, the ideology, strategy and tactics behind it, motivational aspects of its recruitment, its engagement in peace processes, and a detailed description of leadership and group dynamics. This work is based on a wide range of written sources and extensive interviews with individuals intimately related to the group including top LRA commanders, government sources, victims, child soldiers, abductees and wives of Joseph Kony. Moving past stories of unimaginable brutality, forced recruitment, and the group's mystical belief system, the book provides a well-grounded analysis of the different stages of the LRA's development. It demonstrates how the group represents an obscure case study that challenges many of the common assumptions about the operational dynamics of terrorist organizations. Written to fill a gap in academia in relation to African- and Christianity-based terrorism, this book is suitable for students, researchers and practitioners in political sciences, war, conflict and terrorism studies, African politics and international relations and development.
Lange hat sich die soziologische Biografieforschung ganz überwiegend auf Menschen konzentriert, die im "globalen Norden" leben. Dieser Band ist ein Beitrag zu den jüngeren Bemühungen, diese viel zu enge Perspektive aufzuheben. Er zielt auf die Lebensgeschichten und Lebensverläufe von Menschen aus Afrika und dem Nahen Osten. Dabei stehen die biografischen und sozio-geschichtlichen Verflechtungen mit anderen Menschen und anderen gesellschaftlichen Gruppierungen im Mittelpunkt.
This Special Issue explores underrepresented aspects of the political dimensions of global warming. It includes post- and decolonial perspectives on climate-related migration and conflict, intersectional approaches, and climate change politics as a new tool of governance. Its aim is to shed light on the social phenomena associated with anthropogenic climate change, as well as its multidimensional and far-reaching political effects, including climate-induced migration movements and climate-related conflicts in different parts of the world. In doing so, it critically engages with securitizing discourses and the resulting anti-migration arguments and policies in the Global North in order to identify and give a voice to alternative and hitherto underrepresented research and policy perspectives. In this way, it aims to contribute to a fact-based, critical, and holistic approach to human mobility and conflict in the context of political and environmental crisis.
Since the end of the Cold War a significant number of peace agreements have been signed, many of them in bloody intra-state conflicts that were previously thought beyond resolution. How have these agreements addressed issues of territory, security, power and justice? Do they reveal a blueprint for peace, and what can we learn from both their successes and their failures? This timely book provides a comprehensive and cutting-edge analysis of peace agreements signed in separatist conflicts from 1990 to the present day. Drawing on a diverse range of cases, including Bosnia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Sudan, Israel-Palestine and Ukraine, it analyses the different peace 'packages', focusing on the interaction of the elements in play, and exploring the impact of political contestation within conflict parties and of peace process dynamics. Though some of these agreements have displayed great ingenuity in finding lasting solutions, many have relied on more traditional, and often problematic, designs. For all such agreements, the enduring challenge is that of ensuring flexibility while avoiding destructive ambiguity. This is why the content of peace agreements really matters - not only to sustain peace once it is achieved but to make the prospect of peace possible in the first place.
In the 1990s, a shared conviction emerged among aid donors that their policies should be more coherent. The drive towards increased policy coherence came as a response to a state of policy incoherence. The shifting grounds of policy coherence in development co-operation are outlined in this volume.
This book discusses the role of time in peace negotiations and peace processes in the post-Cold War period, making reference to real-world negotiations and using comparative data. Deadlines are increasingly used by mediators to spur deadlocked negotiation processes, under the assumption that fixed time limits tend to favour pragmatism. Yet, little attention is typically paid to the durability of agreements concluded in these conditions, and research in experimental psychology suggests that time pressure can have a negative impact on individual and collective decision-making by reducing each side’s ability to deal with complex issues, complex inter-group dynamics and inter-cultural relations. This volume explores this lacuna in current research through a comparative model that includes 68 episodes of negotiation and then, more in detail, in relation to four cases studies - the Bougainville and Casamance peace processes, and the Dayton and Camp David proximity talks. The case studies reveal that in certain conditions low time pressure can impact positively on the durability of agreements by making possible effective intra-rebel agreements before official negotiations, and that time pressure works in proximity talks only when applied to solving circumscribed deadlocks. This book will be of much interest to students of peace processes, conflict resolution, negotiation, diplomacy and international relations in general.
′The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution demonstrates the range of themes that constitute modern conflict resolution. It brings out its key issues, methods and dilemmas through original contributions by leading scholars in a dynamic and expanding field of inquiry. This handbook is exactly what it sets out to be: an indispensable tool for teaching, research and practice in conflict resolution′ - Peter Wallensteen, Professor of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University and University of Notre Dame ′Bercovitch, Kremenyuk and Zartman are among the most important figures in the conflict resolution field. They have pieced together, with the help of more than 35 colleagues from numerous countries, a state-of-the-art review of the sources of international conflict, available methods of conflict management, and the most difficult challenges facing the individuals and organizations trying to guide us through these conflict-ridden times. The collection is brimming with penetrating insights, trenchant analyses, compelling cases, and disciplined speculation. They help us understand both the promise of as well as the obstacles to theory-building in the new field of conflict resolution′ - Lawrence Susskind, Professor and Director of the MIT - Harvard Public Disputes Program ′The last three sentences of this persuasive book: "We conclude this volume more than ever convinced that conflict resolution is not just possible or desirable in the current international environment. It is absolutely necessary. Resolving conflicts and making peace is no longer an option; it is an intellectual and practical skill that we must all posses." If you are part of that "we," intellectually or professionally, you will find this book a superb companion′ - Thomas C Schelling, Professor Emeritus, Harvard University and University of Maryland Conflict resolution is one of the fastest-growing academic fields in the world today. Although it is a relatively young discipline, having emerged as a specialized field in the 1950′s, it has rapidly grown into a self-contained, vibrant, interdisciplinary field. The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution brings together all the conceptual, methodological and substantive elements of conflict resolution into one volume of over 35 specially commissioned chapters. The Handbook is designed to reflect where the field is today by drawing on the contributions of experts from different fields presenting, in a systematic way, the most recent research and practice. Jacob Bercovitch is Professor of International Relations, and Fellow of the Royal Society, at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Victor Kremenyuk is deputy director of the Institute for USA and Canada Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. He is also a research associate at IIASA. I. William Zartman is Jacob Blaustein Professor of Conflict Resolution and International Organization at the Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of Johns Hopkins University
Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia
This book examines the role of economic aid in the management and resolution of protracted ethnic conflicts, focusing on the case study of Northern Ireland. The book describes the results of a study of the role of economic aid within Northern Ireland, through the viewpoints of citizens collected in an opinion poll as well as community group leaders whose projects received funding, funding-agency civil servants and development officers. The study explains the importance of economic and social development in promoting cross-community contact as well as within single-identity communities, and the need for a multitrack intervention approach to transform the conflict in Northern Ireland. It makes an important contribution to our understanding of how economic assistance impacts on a divided society with a history of protracted violence and provides important perspectives on the "peace through development" idea. One of the key unanswered questions relating to economic aid and preventing future violence is that of the significance of external economic aid in building peace after violence. By examining the respondents’ political imagery, this book expands on existing work on economic aid and peace building in other societies coming out of violence. Northern Ireland’s changing social-economic and political context reflects the fact that economic aid and sustainable economic development is a cornerstone of the peacebuilding process. The goal of the book is to provide a foundational knowledge base for students and practitioners about the role of economic aid in building the peace dividend in post-accord societies. The book will be of great interest to students of conflict resolution, peacebuilding, Irish politics, peace and conflict studies, and politics and IR in general.