Democracy and American Foreign Policy

Democracy and American Foreign Policy

Author: Robert Strausz Hupé

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412821487

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 711

Since World War I, the United States has pursued the defense of Western civilization as a critical element of its own national interest. In his provocative reconsideration of that goal, Robert Strausz-Hupe asks whether the American people can still agree upon and adopt foreign policies consistently devoted to that end. He specifically examines popular and paradoxical attitudes that often undermine Washington's ability to defend American and Western interests, attitudes towards society and the state, politics and government, instruments of foreign policy and the people who wield them. As the backdrop for his analysis, Strausz-Hupe employs the wisdom of Alexis de Tocqueville's "Democracy in America, "reiterating Tocqueville's finding that the driving force of American life is its passion for equality and democracy. To this insight, Strausz-Hupe adds another: When one realizes that domestic politics is the driving force behind foreign policy, one understands why "the foreign policy of the United States cannot be other than the defense of democracy everywhere." Unlike some analysts, however, Strausz-Hupe believes that this proposition states only the problem for American statesmen not the answer. The answer, Strausz-Hupe concludes, lies in a universal federation of democratic states. In an appreciative foreword that examines the evolution of Strausz-Hupe thought, Walter A. McDougall demonstrates that this idealistic vision of a democratic world-state has been the unifying thread in Strausz-Hupe's intellectual career, not the calculating "Realpolitik "so often attributed to him. "Democracy and American Foreign Policy "will be of central importance to international relations specialists, policymakers, political scientists, and students of political philosophy. Its chapters include "Tocqueville and Nationalism"; "Tocqueville and Marx"; "The Hypocrisies of Egalitarianism"; "Foreign Policy and Interest Groups"; and "Isolationism and the New World Order."

Realism and Democracy

Realism and Democracy

Author: Elliott Abrams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108415620

Category: Political Science

Page: 315

View: 941

This book makes a realpolitik argument for supporting democracy in the Arab world, drawing on four decades of policy experience.

Democracy and American Foreign Policy

Democracy and American Foreign Policy

Author: Robert Strausz-Hupe

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351293983

Category: Political Science

Page: 183

View: 308

Since World War I, the United States has pursued the defense of Western civilization as a critical element of its own national interest. In his provocative reconsideration of that goal, Robert Strausz-Hupe asks whether the American people can still agree upon and adopt foreign policies consistently devoted to that end. He specifically examines popular and paradoxical attitudes that often undermine Washington's ability to defend American and Western interests, attitudes towards society and the state, politics and government, instruments of foreign policy and the people who wield them. As the backdrop for his analysis, Strausz-Hupe employs the wisdom of Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America, reiterating Tocqueville's finding that the driving force of American life is its passion for equality and democracy. To this insight, Strausz-Hupe adds another: When one realizes that domestic politics is the driving force behind foreign policy, one understands why "the foreign policy of the United States cannot be other than the defense of democracy everywhere." Unlike some analysts, however, Strausz-Hupe believes that this proposition states only the problem for American statesmen not the answer. The answer, Strausz-Hupe concludes, lies in a universal federation of democratic states. In an appreciative foreword that examines the evolution of Strausz-Hupe thought, Walter A. McDougall demonstrates that this idealistic vision of a democratic world-state has been the unifying thread in Strausz-Hupe's intellectual career, not the calculating Realpolitik so often attributed to him. Democracy and American Foreign Policy will be of central importance to international relations specialists, policymakers, political scientists, and students of political philosophy. Its chapters include "Tocqueville and Nationalism"; "Tocqueville and Marx"; "The Hypocrisies of Egalitarianism"; "Foreign Policy and Interest Groups"; and "Isolationism and the New World Order."

Foreign Policy of the United States

Foreign Policy of the United States

Author: Jennie Robinson

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783640500192

Category: United States

Page: 33

View: 554

Research Paper (postgraduate) from the year 2006 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: USA, grade: A, University of Malta, language: English, abstract: Since the period of American Revolution, the idea of democracy has become rooted in American culture and traditions. Democracy was and is still considered as a successful means for order, peace and prosperity in a country but also internationally among democratic nations. Prosperity is for instance found in the establishment of free trade, as it suggests that democratic countries would rather seek the benefits of trading with each other rather than waging a war and face its costs. Regarding US foreign policy, democracy has evolved as being a foreign policy objective, which implies contradicting types of interventions, i.e. the need to spread democracy and even wage war for it as opposed to the toppling of democratically elected government which are not keen to contribute to US interests. Democracy has thus raised criticisms and praises, with those seeing it as part of the US rhetoric to respond to corporations interests or that the US has been ineffective in spreading it, and those who see it as part of a US liberal strategy for international order. The export of democracy hence became a controversial question since it has been argued that democracy need to grow locally and thus a mission to spread it is part of an unrealistic policy. In the context of these different issues, this assignment will address the question as to whether "the spread of democracy has always been a cornerstone of US foreign policy."

Democracy in Retreat

Democracy in Retreat

Author: Joshua Kurlantzick

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300188967

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 137

DIVSince the end of the Cold War, the assumption among most political theorists has been that as nations develop economically, they will also become more democratic—especially if a vibrant middle class takes root. This assumption underlies the expansion of the European Union and much of American foreign policy, bolstered by such examples as South Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and even to some extent Russia. Where democratization has failed or retreated, aberrant conditions take the blame: Islamism, authoritarian Chinese influence, or perhaps the rise of local autocrats./divDIV /divDIVBut what if the failures of democracy are not exceptions? In this thought-provoking study of democratization, Joshua Kurlantzick proposes that the spate of retreating democracies, one after another over the past two decades, is not just a series of exceptions. Instead, it reflects a new and disturbing trend: democracy in worldwide decline. The author investigates the state of democracy in a variety of countries, why the middle class has turned against democracy in some cases, and whether the decline in global democratization is reversible./div

The Crisis of American Foreign Policy

The Crisis of American Foreign Policy

Author: Howard J. Wiarda

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0742530388

Category: Political Science

Page: 348

View: 331

In The Crisis of American Foreign Policy, noted scholar Howard J. Wiarda argues that the foreign policy of the United States reflects the divisions and dysfunctions we see in our domestic culture and society. Examining the main traditions, institutions, and challenges of American foreign policy, this text is an entertaining read as well as a serious one. It tackles such critical issues as ethnocentrism in foreign policy as well as U.S. efforts to extend democracy, human rights, and civil society in other countries. It includes a balanced chapter on globalization and a discussion on how to deal with authoritarian regimes. With his long experience in Washington policymaking, Wiarda offers especially innovative chapters on the links between foreign policy and Washington think tanks, lobbying and interest groups in the foreign affairs area, and Washington social life. Key areas covered include Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East. Concise, clearly written, well-organized, challenging, and provocative, this is a textbook that students and professors are sure to appreciate.

Domestic Interests, Democracy, and Foreign Policy Change

Domestic Interests, Democracy, and Foreign Policy Change

Author: Brett Ashley Leeds

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781009036900

Category: Political Science

Page:

View: 537

When new leaders come to office, there is often speculation about whether they will take their countries' foreign policies in different directions or stick to their predecessors' policies. We argue that when new leaders come to power who represent different societal interests and preferences than their predecessors, leaders may pursue new foreign policies. At the same time, in democracies, leadership selection processes and policymaking rules blunt leaders' incentives and opportunities for change. Democracies thus tend to pursue more consistent foreign policies than nondemocracies even when new leaders with different supporting coalitions assume office. Statistical analyses of three distinct foreign policy areas – military alliances, UNGA voting, and economic sanctions – provide support for our argument. In a fourth area – trade – we find that both democracies and nondemocracies are more likely to experience foreign policy change when a new leader with a different supporting coalition comes to power. We thus conclude that foreign policy responds to domestic political interests, and that, even as the interests supporting leaders change, democracies' foreign policies are no less stable than those of nondemocracies and often exhibit greater consistency.

Special Providence

Special Providence

Author: Walter Russell Mead

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136758669

Category: Political Science

Page: 402

View: 606

"God has a special providence for fools, drunks and the United States of America."--Otto von Bismarck America's response to the September 11 attacks spotlighted many of the country's longstanding goals on the world stage: to protect liberty at home, to secure America's economic interests, to spread democracy in totalitarian regimes and to vanquish the enemy utterly. One of America's leading foreign policy thinkers, Walter Russell Mead, argues that these diverse, conflicting impulses have in fact been the key to the U.S.'s success in the world. In a sweeping new synthesis, Mead uncovers four distinct historical patterns in foreign policy, each exemplified by a towering figure from our past. Wilsonians are moral missionaries, making the world safe for democracy by creating international watchdogs like the U.N. Hamiltonians likewise support international engagement, but their goal is to open foreign markets and expand the economy. Populist Jacksonians support a strong military, one that should be used rarely, but then with overwhelming force to bring the enemy to its knees. Jeffersonians, concerned primarily with liberty at home, are suspicious of both big military and large-scale international projects. A striking new vision of America's place in the world, Special Providence transcends stale debates about realists vs. idealists and hawks vs. doves to provide a revolutionary, nuanced, historically-grounded view of American foreign policy.

To Serve the Living

To Serve the Living

Author: Suzanne E. Smith

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674267428

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 290

From antebellum slavery to the twenty-first century, African American funeral directors have orchestrated funerals or “homegoing” ceremonies with dignity and pageantry. As entrepreneurs in a largely segregated trade, they were among the few black individuals in any community who were economically independent and not beholden to the local white power structure. Most important, their financial freedom gave them the ability to support the struggle for civil rights and, indeed, to serve the living as well as bury the dead. During the Jim Crow era, black funeral directors relied on racial segregation to secure their foothold in America’s capitalist marketplace. With the dawning of the civil rights age, these entrepreneurs were drawn into the movement to integrate American society, but were also uncertain how racial integration would affect their business success. From the beginning, this tension between personal gain and community service shaped the history of African American funeral directing. For African Americans, death was never simply the end of life, and funerals were not just places to mourn. In the “hush harbors” of the slave quarters, African Americans first used funerals to bury their dead and to plan a path to freedom. Similarly, throughout the long—and often violent—struggle for racial equality in the twentieth century, funeral directors aided the cause by honoring the dead while supporting the living. To Serve the Living offers a fascinating history of how African American funeral directors have been integral to the fight for freedom.

The Ideas That Conquered The World

The Ideas That Conquered The World

Author: Michael Mandelbaum

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9780786724963

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 964

At the dawn of the twenty-first century, three ideas dominate the world: peace as the preferred basis for relations between and among different countries, democracy as the optimal way to organize political life, and free markets as the indispensable vehicle for the creation of wealth. While not practiced everywhere, these ideas have--for the first time in history--no serious rivals. And although the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were terrible and traumatic, they did not "change everything," as so many commentators have asserted. Instead, these events served to illuminate even more brightly the world that emerged from the end of the Cold War. In The Ideas That Conquered the World, Michael Mandelbaum describes the uneven spread (over the past two centuries) of peace, democracy, and free markets from the wealthy and powerful countries of the world's core, where they originated, to the weaker and poorer countries of its periphery. And he assesses the prospects for these ideas in the years to come, giving particular attention to the United States, which bears the greatest responsibility for protecting and promoting them, and to Russia, China, and the Middle East, in which they are not well established and where their fate will affect the rest of the world. Drawing on history, politics, and economics, this incisive book provides a clear and original guide to the main trends of the twenty-first century, from globalization to terrorism, through the perspective of one of our era's most provocative thinkers.