Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Breastfeeding

Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Breastfeeding

Author: Athena P. Kourtis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461422501

Category: Medical

Page: 315

View: 746

The HIV pandemic continues to levy a heavy burden on the human race world-wide. The estimated number of people who became newly infected with HIV in 2009 was 2.6 million; most of these individuals live in Sub-Saharan Africa, followed by India and Southeast Asia. An estimated 370,000 new cases of pediatric infections occurred globally in 2009 (or more than 1,000 new infections every day), practically all of them through mother-to-child transmission. Up to 40% of all new infant HIV infections occur during breastfeeding. While breastfeeding by HIV-infected mothers is not recommended in the U.S. and other resource-rich settings where safe replacement feeding is easily available, the situation is different in many resource-limited settings, where replacement feeding is not safe or available and carries a high risk of infections (diarrhea, pneumonia) and infant malnutrition. Mothers in such settings are faced with a difficult dilemma: to breastfeed their infants in order to provide their infants with its many benefits (nutritional, immunologic, cognitive), but to also risk transmitting HIV. These challenges have prompted an intensive search for new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies in order to prevent infants from acquiring HIV infection through breastfeeding. In this book, expert HIV researchers critically review every aspect of this highly evolving and topical subject. The opening chapters deal with the epidemiology, global magnitude and biologic mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission from mother to child through breastfeeding and include considerations of the virus (quantity, compartments, characteristics) and the host (genetic, immunity-innate, cellular, humoral). The effects of breastfeeding on the HIV-infected mother’s health and nutritional status, and the social and cultural issues associated with the practice of breastfeeding are also discussed. The next few chapters provide cutting-edge reviews of the latest approaches to prevention of HIV transmission to the infant through breastfeeding, including antiretroviral strategies, nutritional and immune-based approaches, and treatment of expressed breast milk. The remaining chapters provide a fascinating review of the many iterations this subject has received, as reflected in the several different sets of guidelines for infant feeding by HIV-infected mothers issued by the World Health Organization, and a debate by leading scientists on whether HIV-infected mothers should breastfeed their infants-in resource-limited and in resource-rich settings. A comprehensive overview of the current state of implementing the new evidence for prevention of breastfeeding transmission of HIV all over the world is also presented. Essential reading for the many disciplines of scientists and clinicians working on HIV/AIDS and other retroviruses, pediatricians, obstetricians/gynecologists, as well as all health-care professionals interested in expanding their understanding on the subject.

Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

Author: Edith White

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 0786406941

Category: Medical

Page: 216

View: 690

The spread of the AIDS virus has introduced a new element into the formula-versus-breastfeeding controversy. Mothers, particularly those in developing nations, have been urged to breastfeed in order to better nourish their infants and protect them from disease or contaminants in the water used to prepare formula. Now, however, mothers and healthcare workers must consider the danger of transmitting AIDS via breastfeeding. When HIV-infected women nurse their children, they significantly increase the risk of transmitting the virus. The issue is further complicated in countries where the alternatives are not very promising and in cultures that stigmatize women for even undergoing AIDS testing. This informative analysis includes the development of research into HIV and breastfeeding, the medical and political questions surrounding the controversy, and options and solutions for women to consider in feeding their infants. Fully indexed, this book is an important contribution to the social and medical studies of one of the most tragic facets of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

HIV Transmission Through Breastfeeding

HIV Transmission Through Breastfeeding

Author: Marie-Louise Newell

Publisher:

ISBN: 9241562714

Category: Medical

Page: 40

View: 155

This book presents a summary of the available scientific evidence on the transmission of HIV infection through breastfeeding. It briefly describes the benefits of breastfeeding for both mothers and infants; and summarizes evidence on the relative risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding.

Viral Mothers

Viral Mothers

Author: Bernice L. Hausman

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472071319

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 293

View: 354

Sheds light on the complex cultural politics that surround the promotion of breastfeeding at a time of global health crises

HIV and Infant Feeding

HIV and Infant Feeding

Author: UNICEF.

Publisher:

ISBN: 9241591226

Category: AIDS (Disease) in infants

Page: 92

View: 681

Series on HIV and infant feeding. Guides based on a Technical Consultation of new data on the prevention of MTCT and their policy implications which was convened in October 2000. WHO and UN partners developed or revised earlier documents.

HIV and Infant Feeding

HIV and Infant Feeding

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: MINN:31951D022423144

Category: AIDS (Disease) in infants

Page: 96

View: 916

Series on HIV and infant feeding. Guides based on a Technical Consultation of new data on the prevention of MTCT and their policy implications which was convened in October 2000. WHO and UN partners developed or revised earlier documents.

HIV Transmission Through Breastfeeding

HIV Transmission Through Breastfeeding

Author: Marie-Louise Newell

Publisher:

ISBN: MINN:31951P00888047H

Category: Medical

Page: 25

View: 834

This book presents a summary of the available scientific evidence on the transmission of HIV infection through breastfeeding. It briefly describes the benefits of breastfeeding for both mothers and infants; and summarizes evidence on the relative risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding.

Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS

Author: Edith White

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 0786406941

Category: Medical

Page: 218

View: 501

The spread of the AIDS virus has introduced a new element into the formula-versus-breastfeeding controversy. Mothers, particularly those in developing nations, have been urged to breastfeed in order to better nourish their infants and protect them from disease or contaminants in the water used to prepare formula. Now, however, mothers and healthcare workers must consider the danger of transmitting AIDS via breastfeeding. When HIV-infected women nurse their children, they significantly increase the risk of transmitting the virus. The issue is further complicated in countries where the alternatives are not very promising and in cultures that stigmatize women for even undergoing AIDS testing. This informative analysis includes the development of research into HIV and breastfeeding, the medical and political questions surrounding the controversy, and options and solutions for women to consider in feeding their infants. Fully indexed, this book is an important contribution to the social and medical studies of one of the most tragic facets of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

Anti-AIDS Drugs In Human Breast Milk

Anti-AIDS Drugs In Human Breast Milk

Author: Naser Rezk

Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

ISBN: 3659563986

Category:

Page: 168

View: 136

Breastfeeding is strongly recommended for its benefit to the mother and the infant. However, in HIV infection, breastfeeding can transmit the virus from the mother to the infant. The development of affordable antiretroviral medications which accumulate in breast milk may offer a novel approach to reduce the rate of vertical transmission of HIV. However, little information exists on antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in the breast milk of women, and the relationship of these concentrations to infant exposure. The focus of this work was to overcome the complexity of the milk matrix in an efficient way for sample clean-up prior to analysis. After validation of these antiretroviral extraction methods and assays, simultaneous quantification of antiretroviral in the breast milk and plasma of Malawian women were performed.