Argumentation in Artificial Intelligence

Argumentation in Artificial Intelligence

Author: Iyad Rahwan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387981970

Category: Computers

Page: 493

View: 733

Argumentation is all around us. Letters to the Editor often make points of cons- tency, and “Why” is one of the most frequent questions in language, asking for r- sons behind behaviour. And argumentation is more than ‘reasoning’ in the recesses of single minds, since it crucially involves interaction. It cements the coordinated social behaviour that has allowed us, in small bands of not particularly physically impressive primates, to dominate the planet, from the mammoth hunt all the way up to organized science. This volume puts argumentation on the map in the eld of Arti cial Intelligence. This theme has been coming for a while, and some famous pioneers are chapter authors, but we can now see a broader systematic area emerging in the sum of topics and results. As a logician, I nd this intriguing, since I see AI as ‘logic continued by other means’, reminding us of broader views of what my discipline is about. Logic arose originally out of re ection on many-agent practices of disputation, in Greek Ant- uity, but also in India and China. And logicians like me would like to return to this broader agenda of rational agency and intelligent interaction. Of course, Aristotle also gave us a formal systems methodology that deeply in uenced the eld, and eventually connected up happily with mathematical proof and foundations.

Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law

Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540278818

Category: Law

Page: 270

View: 870

Use of argumentation methods applied to legal reasoning is a relatively new field of study. The book provides a survey of the leading problems, and outlines how future research using argumentation-based methods show great promise of leading to useful solutions. The problems studied include not only these of argument evaluation and argument invention, but also analysis of specific kinds of evidence commonly used in law, like witness testimony, circumstantial evidence, forensic evidence and character evidence. New tools for analyzing these kinds of evidence are introduced.

Computational Models of Argument

Computational Models of Argument

Author: H. Prakken

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9781643681078

Category: Computers

Page: 498

View: 639

The investigation of computational models of argument is a rich and fascinating interdisciplinary research field with two ultimate aims: the theoretical goal of understanding argumentation as a cognitive phenomenon by modeling it in computer programs, and the practical goal of supporting the development of computer-based systems able to engage in argumentation-related activities with human users or among themselves. The biennial International Conferences on Computational Models of Argument (COMMA) provide a dedicated forum for the presentation and discussion of the latest advancements in the field, and cover both basic research and innovative applications. This book presents the proceedings of COMMA 2020. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, COMMA 2020 was held as an online event on the originally scheduled dates of 8 -11 September 2020, organised by the University of Perugia, Italy. The book includes 28 full papers and 13 short papers selected from a total of 78 submissions, the abstracts of 3 invited talks and 13 demonstration abstracts. The interdisciplinary nature of the field is reflected, and contributions cover both theory and practice. Theoretical contributions include new formal models, the study of formal or computational properties of models, designs for implemented systems and experimental research. Practical papers include applications to medicine, law and criminal investigation, chatbots and online product reviews. The argument-mining trend from previous COMMA’s is continued, while an emerging trend this year is the use of argumentation for explainable AI. The book provided an overview of the latest work on computational models of argument, and will be of interest to all those working in the field.

Computational Models of Argument

Computational Models of Argument

Author: Paul E. Dunne

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1586036521

Category: Computers

Page: 360

View: 984

"Argumentation has evolved from its original study primarily by philosophers to emerge in the last ten years as an important sub-discipline of Artificial Intelligence. There have been significant contributions resulting from this, including approaches to modelling and analysis of defeasible reasoning, formal bases for negotiation and dialogue processes in multiagent systems, and the use of argumentation theory in AI applications whose nature is not best described through traditional logics, e.g. legal reasoning, evaluation of conflicting beliefs, etc. The process of interpreting and exploiting classical treatments of Argumentation Theory in effective computational terms has led to a rich interchange of ideas among researchers from disciplines such as Philosophy, Linguistics, AI and Economics. While work over recent years has done much to consolidate diverse contributions to the field, many new concerns have been identified and form the basis of current research. The papers in this volume, presented as part of the 1st International Conference on Computational Model of Arguments (COMMA) in September 2006, give a valuable overview of on-going research issues and concerns within this field."

Theory and Applications of Formal Argumentation

Theory and Applications of Formal Argumentation

Author: Elizabeth Black

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642543739

Category: Computers

Page: 209

View: 844

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the second International Workshop on the Theory and Applications of Formal Argumentation, TAFA 2013, held in Beijing, China, in August 2013. The Workshop was co-located with IJCAI 2013. The 15 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 22 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections such as abstract argumentation frameworks, social abstract argumentation with votes on attacks, a normal form of argumentation frameworks, assumption-based argumentation, argument schemes for normative practical reasoning.

New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence

New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence

Author: Ken Satoh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540781967

Category: Computers

Page: 406

View: 367

The technology of arti?cial intelligence is increasing its importance thanks to the rapid growth of the Internet and computer technology. In Japan, the annual conference series of JSAI (The Japanese Society for Arti?cial Intelligence) has been playing a leading role in promoting AI research, and selected papers of the annual conferences have been published in the LNAI series since 2003. This book consists of award papers from the 21st annual conference of JSAI (JSAI 2007) and selected papers from the four co-located workshops. Seven papers were awarded among more than 335 presentations in the conference and 24 papers were selected from a total of 48 presentations in the co-located workshops: Logic and Engineering of Natural Language Semantics 2007 (LENLS 2007), the International Workshop on Risk Informatics (RI 2007), the 5th Wo- shop on Learning with Logics and Logics for Learning (LLLL 2007), and the 1st International Workshop on Juris-informatics (JURISIN 2007). The award papers from JSAI 2007 underwent a rigorous selection process. Firstly, recommendations were made from three people (Session Chair, session commentator and one PC member) in each session, and then recommended - pers were carefully reviewed and voted for by PC members for ?nal selection.

Logical Models of Legal Argumentation

Logical Models of Legal Argumentation

Author: H. Prakken

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401156684

Category: Law

Page: 216

View: 293

In the study of forms of legal reasoning, logic and argumentation theory long followed separate tracks. `Legal logicians' tended to focus on a deductive reconstruction of justifying a decision, disregarding the dialectical process leading to the chosen justification. Others instead emphasized the adversarial and discretionary nature of legal reasoning, involving reasonable evaluation of alternative choices, and the use of analogical reasoning. Recently, however, developments in Artificial Intelligence and Law have paved the way for overcoming this separation. Logic has widened its scope to defensible argumentation, and informal accounts of analogy and dialectics have inspired the construction of computer programs. Thus the prospect is emerging of an integrated logical and dialectical account of legal argument, adding to the understanding of legal reasoning, and providing a formal basis for computer tools that assist and mediate legal debates while leaving room for human initiative. This book presents contributions to this development. From a logical point of view it covers topics such as evaluating conflicting arguments, weighing reasons, modelling legal disputes as a dialogue game, the role of the burden of proof, the relation between principles, rules, reasons and facts, and the relation between deductive and nondeductive arguments. Written by leading scholars in the field and building on recent developments in logic and Artificial Intelligence, the chapters provide a state-of-the-art account of research on the logical aspects of legal argument.

Argumentation Machines

Argumentation Machines

Author: C. Reed

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401704311

Category: Computers

Page: 240

View: 866

In the late 1990s, AI witnessed an increasing use of the term 'argumentation' within its bounds: in natural language processing, in user interface design, in logic programming and nonmonotonic reasoning, in Al's interface with the legal community, and in the newly emerging field of multi-agent systems. It seemed to me that many of these uses of argumentation were inspired by (of ten inspired) guesswork, and that a great majority of the AI community were unaware that there was a maturing, rich field of research in Argumentation Theory (and Critical Thinking and Informal Logic) that had been steadily re building a scholarly approach to the area over the previous twenty years or so. Argumentation Theory, on its side; was developing theories and approaches that many in the field felt could have a role more widely in research and soci ety, but were for the most part unaware that AI was one of the best candidates for such application.

Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law

Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540251871

Category: Law

Page: 270

View: 115

Use of argumentation methods applied to legal reasoning is a relatively new field of study. Many vitally important problems of legal reasoning can be profitably studied in light of these new methods, even if they cannot all be solved in any single monograph. This book provides a survey of the leading problems, and outlines how future research using argumentation-based methods show great promise of leading to useful solutions. The problems studied include not only these of argument evaluation and argument invention, but also analysis of specific kinds of evidence commonly used in law, like witness testimony, circumstantial evidence, forensic evidence and character evidence. New tools for analyzing these kinds of evidence are introduced, like argument diagramming, abductive reasoning, an analysis of conditional relevance and a new dialectical model of explanation.