Animal Sonar Systems

Animal Sonar Systems

Author: International Interdisciplinary Symposium on Animal Sonar Systems (2 : 1979 : Jersey)

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: UCSD:31822003705050

Category: Science

Page: 1176

View: 931

Thirteen years have gone by since the first international meet ing on Animal Sonar Systems was held in Frascati, Italy, in 1966. Since that time, almost 900 papers have been published on its theme. The first symposium was vital as it was the starting point for new research lines whose goal was to design and develop technological systems with properties approaching optimal biological systems. There have been highly significant developments since then in all domains related to biological sonar systems and in their appli cations to the engineering field. The time had therefore come for a multidisciplinary integration of the information gathered, not only on the evolution of systems used in animal echolocation, but on systems theory, behavior and neurobiology, signal-to-noise ratio, masking, signal processing, and measures observed in certain species against animal sonar systems. Modern electronics technology and systems theory which have been developed only since 1974 now allow designing sophisticated sonar and radar systems applying principles derived from biological systems. At the time of the Frascati meeting, integrated circuits and technol ogies exploiting computer science were not well enough developed to yield advantages now possible through use of real-time analysis, leading to, among other things, a definition of target temporal char acteristics, as biological sonar systems are able to do. All of these new technical developments necessitate close co operation between engineers and biologists within the framework of new experiments which have been designed, particularly in the past five years.

Animal Sonar Systems

Animal Sonar Systems

Author: R. Busnel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468472547

Category: Science

Page: 1135

View: 657

Thirteen years have gone by since the first international meet ing on Animal Sonar Systems was held in Frascati, Italy, in 1966. Since that time, almost 900 papers have been published on its theme. The first symposium was vital as it was the starting point for new research lines whose goal was to design and develop technological systems with properties approaching optimal biological systems. There have been highly significant developments since then in all domains related to biological sonar systems and in their appli cations to the engineering field. The time had therefore come for a multidisciplinary integration of the information gathered, not only on the evolution of systems used in animal echolocation, but on systems theory, behavior and neurobiology, signal-to-noise ratio, masking, signal processing, and measures observed in certain species against animal sonar systems. Modern electronics technology and systems theory which have been developed only since 1974 now allow designing sophisticated sonar and radar systems applying principles derived from biological systems. At the time of the Frascati meeting, integrated circuits and technol ogies exploiting computer science were not well enough developed to yield advantages now possible through use of real-time analysis, leading to, among other things, a definition of target temporal char acteristics, as biological sonar systems are able to do. All of these new technical developments necessitate close co operation between engineers and biologists within the framework of new experiments which have been designed, particularly in the past five years.

Animal Sonar

Animal Sonar

Author: Paul E. Nachtigall

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468474930

Category: Science

Page: 862

View: 156

The first meeting on biosonar that I had the opportunity to attend was held in 1978 on the Island of Jersey in the English Channel. That meeting, organized by Professor R.G. Busne1 and Dr. Jim Fish, was my introduction to an exciting and varied group of hard-working and dedicated scientists studying animal echolocation. They are, by nature, a very diverse group. They tend to publish in different journals and rarely interact despite the fact that they all work on echolocation. When they do interact as a group, as they did in Frascati Italy in 1966, in Jersey i~ 1978, and during the meeting reported in this volume, the meetings are intense, interesting, and exciting. This volume is a composition of a series of contributed papers written to foster an interdisciplinary understanding of the echolocation systems of animals. The echolocation pulse production studies in bats and dolphins have recently been concentrated on the ontogeny of infant pulses, other studies, with three-dimensional computer graphics and x-ray computed tomography, have concentrated on finally resolving the old controversy concerning the site of dolphin echolocation click production. Much has been accomplished on the analysis of bat neural structure and function. The intense effort directed toward understanding the structure, connections, and functional properties of parallel auditory pathways and the parallel and hierarchical processing of information by the mustached bat, has lead to dramatic breakthroughs in understanding brain function.

Animal Sonar

Animal Sonar

Author: NATO Advanced Study Institute on Animal Sonar Systems

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: UCSD:31822002498137

Category: Science

Page: 862

View: 653

Proceedings of a NATO ASI held in Helsingor, Denmark, September 10-19, 1986

The Sonar of Dolphins

The Sonar of Dolphins

Author: Whitlow W.L. Au

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461243564

Category: Medical

Page: 278

View: 519

The extraordinary ability of dolphins to echolocate has fascinated scientists and the public since its discovery in the late 1950's. This is the first book to summarize modern research in this area, and presents a broad synthesis of this very interdisciplinary subject. The author is an internationally-recognized expert on dolphin sonar and is thus in a unique position to bring together research on the physiological, mathematical and engineering aspects of the subject. Of interest to auditory researchers, electrical engineers, acoustical physicists, and mammalian physiologists.

Ultrasonic Communication by Animals

Ultrasonic Communication by Animals

Author: G. Sales

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401169011

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 327

In recent years there has been a rapid increase in the understanding of communication between animals and this is perhaps especially true of bio-acoustics. In the last 35 years a completely new branch of bio acoustics, involving ultrasounds, has been made possible by technical developments that now allow these inaudible sounds to be detected and studied. This subject has a personal fascination for the authors, perhaps because of the novelty of 'listening in' to these previously unknown sig nals, perhaps because of the wide variety of ways in which different animals use them. Many studies of different aspects of animal ultrasound have now been published and a review of them all seems to be timely. Ultrasound is is biologically arbitrary; other animals defined in human terms and may produce similar signals at lower frequencies for similar purposes. This book attempts to be comprehensive but the limits of the subject are rather difficult to define. It should be read in conjunction with other books on audible bio-acoustics. Each chapter has been written and may be read as a separate entity, although there is considerable cross-referencing. Chapters 1 and 2 form a common introduction and may help in understanding the later sections. The Appendix is not essential but is included for those who may be interested in the quanti tative aspects of the echo-location phenomena described in Chapters 3 and 8.

Principles of Marine Bioacoustics

Principles of Marine Bioacoustics

Author: Whitlow W. L. Au

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387783652

Category: Science

Page: 679

View: 329

Humans have always been fascinated by marine life, from extremely small diatoms to the largest mammal that inhabits our planet, the blue whale. However, studying marine life in the ocean is an extremely difficult propo- tion because an ocean environment is not only vast but also opaque to most instruments and can be a hostile environment in which to perform expe- ments and research. The use of acoustics is one way to effectively study animal life in the ocean. Acoustic energy propagates in water more efficiently than almost any form of energy and can be utilized by animals for a variety of purposes and also by scientists interested in studying their behavior and natural history. However, underwater acoustics have traditionally been in the domain of physicists, engineers and mathematicians. Studying the natural history of animals is in the domain of biologists and physiologists. Und- standing behavior of animals has traditionally involved psychologists and zoologists. In short, marine bioacoustics is and will continue to be a diverse discipline involving investigators from a variety of backgrounds, with very different knowledge and skill sets. The inherent inter-disciplinary nature of marine bioacoustics presents a large challenge in writing a single text that would be meaningful to various investigators and students interested in this field. Yet we have embarked on this challenge to produce a volume that would be helpful to not only beginning investigators but to seasoned researchers.

Localization and Orientation in Biology and Engineering

Localization and Orientation in Biology and Engineering

Author: D. Varju

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642693083

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 143

The German Society of Cybernetics organizes international conferences on selected interdisciplinary topics in regular 3-year intervals. The aim of these meetings is to bring together scientists who work in quite different disciplines, but are confronted with related problems and use the same or similar approaches. The topic of the 1983 conference which was held on March 23-25 at the University of Tiibingen came from a typical field of research in which engineers, biologists, and phYSicists share a common interest. We do not want to discuss here in detail the common principles which are used by nature and by engineers to solve the problems associated with localization and orientation, since the reader will find enough examples in this volume. The question, however, whether the participants of such meetings can really profit from each other, deserves some further consid eration. First, there is the difficulty of finding a common language. This still seems to be a problem, although in some fields the language of engineers and biologists has become very similar over the years, an impression we also gained during the conference. Most of the authors made a great ef fort to use a vocabulary which is understandable to people outside their own field of research, but, admittedly, not all succeeded.

Advances in Vertebrate Neuroethology

Advances in Vertebrate Neuroethology

Author: Jorg-Peter Ewert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468444124

Category: Medical

Page: 1238

View: 628

This volume presents the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Advances in Vertebrate Neuroethology" held at the University of Kassel, Federal Republic of Germany in August 1981. During the last decade much progress has been made in understanding the neurophysiological bases of behavior in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The reason for this is that a number of new physiological, anatomical, and histochemical techniques have recently been developed for brain research which can now be combined with ethological methods for the analysis of animal behavior to form a new field of research known as "Neuroethology". The term Neuroethology was originally introduced by S.L.Brown and R.W.Hunsperger (1963) in connection with studies on the activation of agonistic behaviors by electrical brain stimulation in cats. Neuroethology was more closely defined by G.Hoyle (1970) in the context of a review on cellular mechanisms underlying behavior of invertebrates. Since the 6th annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience held in Toronto in 1976, Neuroethology has become established as a session topic.

Echolocation in Bats and Dolphins

Echolocation in Bats and Dolphins

Author: Jeanette A. Thomas

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226795993

Category: Nature

Page: 636

View: 433

Although bats and dolphins live in very different environments, are vastly different in size, and hunt different kinds of prey, both groups have evolved similar sonar systems, known as echolocation, to locate food and navigate the skies and seas. While much research has been conducted over the past thirty years on echolocation in bats and dolphins, this volume is the first to compare what is known about echolocation in each group, to point out what information is missing, and to identify future areas of research. Echolocation in Bats and Dolphins consists of six sections: mechanisms of echolocation signal production; the anatomy and physiology of signal reception and interpretation; performance and cognition; ecological and evolutionary aspects of echolocation mammals; theoretical and methodological topics; and possible echolocation capabilities in other mammals, including shrews, seals, and baleen whales. Animal behaviorists, ecologists, physiologists, and both scientists and engineers who work in the field of bioacoustics will benefit from this book.