In November 2015, the Center for Global Security Research, NSO, and Global Security program jointly sponsored a seminar investigating questions related to cross-domain deterrence at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the seminar, experts were asked to moderate discussion based on the four topics below. For each of these topics, we have compiled a short list of literature that will help analysts develop a baseline understanding of the issue.
This open access volume surveys the state of the field to examine whether a fifth wave of deterrence theory is emerging. Bringing together insights from world-leading experts from three continents, the volume identifies the most pressing strategic challenges, frames theoretical concepts, and describes new strategies. The use and utility of deterrence in today’s strategic environment is a topic of paramount concern to scholars, strategists and policymakers. Ours is a period of considerable strategic turbulence, which in recent years has featured a renewed emphasis on nuclear weapons used in defence postures across different theatres; a dramatic growth in the scale of military cyber capabilities and the frequency with which these are used; and rapid technological progress including the proliferation of long-range strike and unmanned systems. These military-strategic developments occur in a polarized international system, where cooperation between leading powers on arms control regimes is breaking down, states widely make use of hybrid conflict strategies, and the number of internationalized intrastate proxy conflicts has quintupled over the past two decades. Contemporary conflict actors exploit a wider gamut of coercive instruments, which they apply across a wider range of domains. The prevalence of multi-domain coercion across but also beyond traditional dimensions of armed conflict raises an important question: what does effective deterrence look like in the 21st century? Answering that question requires a re-appraisal of key theoretical concepts and dominant strategies of Western and non-Western actors in order to assess how they hold up in today’s world. Air Commodore Professor Dr. Frans Osinga is the Chair of the War Studies Department of the Netherlands Defence Academy and the Special Chair in War Studies at the University Leiden. Dr. Tim Sweijs is the Director of Research at The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies and a Research Fellow at the Faculty of Military Sciences of the Netherlands Defence Academy in Breda.
Political realism is a highly diverse body of international relations theory. This substantial reference work examines political realism in terms of its history, its scientific methodology and its normative role in international affairs. Split into three sections, it covers the 2000-year canon of realism: the different schools of thought, the key thinkers and how it responds to foreign policy challenges faced by individual states and globally. It brings political realism up-to-date by showing where theory has failed to keep up with contemporary problems and suggests how it can be applied and adapted to fit our new, globalised world order.
An in-depth assessment of innovations in military information technology informs hypothetical outcomes for artificial intelligence adaptations In the coming decades, artificial intelligence (AI) will revolutionize the way we live and the way we wage war. Military organizations that best innovate and adapt to this AI revolution will gain significant advantages over rivals. Great powers such as the United States, China, and Russia are investing in novel sensing, reasoning, and learning technologies that will alter how militaries observe, orient, decide, and act in relation to the enemy and environment. This will fundamentally change how we conceptualize the national security enterprise. In Information in War: Military Innovation, Battle Networks, and the Future of Artificial Intelligence, Benjamin M. Jensen, Christopher Whyte, and Scott Cuomo provide a deeper understanding of the relationship between information, organizational dynamics, and military power. They analyze past examples of successes and failures with innovations in military information technologies and demonstrate how militaries can avoid common obstacles to achieve effective adoption. Information in War concludes with four hypothetical outcomes of how the US military may use AI by 2040 to help imagine and prepare for a range of possible futures.
This annual edited volume presents an overview of cutting-edge research areas within digital ethics as defined by the Digital Ethics Lab of the University of Oxford. It identifies new challenges and opportunities of influence in setting the research agenda in the field. The 2020 edition of the yearbook presents research on the following topics: governing digital health, visualising governance, the digital afterlife, the possibility of an AI winter, the limits of design theory in philosophy, cyberwarfare, ethics of online behaviour change, governance of AI, trust in AI, and Emotional Self-Awareness as a Digital Literacy. This book appeals to students, researchers and professionals in the field.
The challenge of deterring territorial aggression is taking on renewed importance, yet discussion of it has lagged in U.S. military and strategy circles. The authors aim to provide a fresh look, with two primary purposes: to review established concepts about deterrence, and to provide a framework for evaluating the strength of deterrent relationships. They focus on a specific type of deterrence: extended deterrence of interstate aggression.
Long established as the preeminent source in its field, the eagerly anticipated fifth edition of Dr Stahl's essential textbook of psychopharmacology is here! With its use of icons and figures that form Dr Stahl's unique 'visual language', the book is the single most readable source of information on disease and drug mechanisms for all students and mental health professionals seeking to understand and utilize current therapeutics, and to anticipate the future for novel medications. Every aspect of the book has been updated, with the clarity of explanation that only Dr Stahl can bring. The new edition includes over 500 new or refreshed figures, an intuitive color scheme, fourteen new uses for older drugs and eighteen brand new drugs, coverage of Parkinson's Disease Psychosis, behavioural symptoms of dementia, and mixed features in major depressive episodes, and expanded information on the medical uses of cannabis and hallucinogen assisted psychotherapy.