The Hippocratic Epidemics and Galen’s Commentary on them constitute milestones in the development of clinical medicine. However, they also illustrate the rich exegetical traditions that existed in the post-classical Greek world. The present volume investigates these texts from various and diverse vantage points: textual criticism; Greek philology; knowledge transfer through translations; and medical history. Especially the Syriac and Arabic traditions of the Epidemics come under scrutiny.
In der 1968 gegründeten Reihe erscheinen Monographien aus den Gebieten der Griechischen und Lateinischen Philologie sowie der Alten Geschichte. Die Bände weisen eine große Vielzahl von Themen auf: neben sprachlichen, textkritischen oder gattungsgeschichtlichen philologischen Untersuchungen stehen sozial-, politik-, finanz- und kulturgeschichtliche Arbeiten aus der Klassischen Antike und der Spätantike. Entscheidend für die Aufnahme ist die Qualität einer Arbeit; besonderen Wert legen die Herausgeber auf eine umfassende Heranziehung der einschlägigen Texte und Quellen und deren sorgfältige kritische Auswertung.
Through its coverage of 19 epidemics associated with a broad range of wars across time and place that blends medical knowledge, demographics, and geographic and medical information with historical and military insights, this book reveals the complex relationship between epidemics and wars throughout history. • Provides readers with a broad understanding of the relationship between disease and epidemics and their impact upon (and by) wars • Helps non-medical professionals grasp some of the important elements of specific epidemics—such as disease vectors and common factors assisting diffusion—through explanations in easily understood language • Blends the perspective from humanistic and social science studies with critical information from science on topics that have continually impacted nations and societies over the ages • Clarifies the confusing details of similar yet different diseases for readers without medical or scientific backgrounds
"A comprehensive guide to the topic of emerging and threatening diseases, particularly their relationships to world health issues, current events, and political decision-making"--Provided by publisher.
Historians have long recognized epidemics to be a significant, though sometimes hidden, factor in the fortunes of societies and civilizations. The study of epidemics heightens our understanding of relationships between economic systems and living conditions. It illuminates the ideologies and religious beliefs of the affected community and illustrates the efforts and inadequacies of public health systems. This investigation of the history of epidemics in various parts of Peru during the twentieth century opens up a new field for Latin American studies to include health and disease. These are important areas of the past that enable us to understand better the living conditions of people, the role of state authority and the dynamics of social movement. Marcos Cueto examines five series of epidemics: the bubonic plague of 1903-1930; the fever epidemic of 1919-1922; the typhus and small pox epidemics in the Andes; attempts to control and eradicate malaria, and the cholera epidemics of 1991. In each case he studies the biological and ecological factors that caused the outbreak, and the techniques and policies applied to fight it, together with the response of the affected society. The experience of epidemics in Peru has been cyclical. Poverty breeds disease which in turn results in further poverty. One of the aims of this study is to highlight areas of success and failure in the fight against epidemics in the hope that such awareness may help break this vicious circle.
This volume investigates the multifaceted SHAPES (socio-historic, artistic, political, and ecological significance) of global disease. It challenges conventional views of infection and transmission by associating epidemics with ideologies and their accompanying institutions. It argues that the physical threat of epidemics is irrevocably linked to culture, economic resources, social class, and power. Epidemics involve both the infected and non-infected, affect the local and global, and they expose control and neglect. This book provides a radical collaborative approach, drawing contributors from closely related and vastly distant fields in the search for innovative ways to address human suffering, and to find real solutions that may determine whether people live or die. Such an approach is needed within an increasingly interconnected world where both pathological diseases and health behaviors are infectious. Experts from fifteen diverse disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and arts and humanities present case studies from across the world and time, demonstrating the uniqueness of each disease and epidemic in its place, but also the shared experiences that span human life and death. In order to identify, measure and control epidemics, we must understand epidemics more as long biosocial processes than abrupt events in nature or culture. Such methodology examines the meaning we attach to epidemics, as well as their material reality, and provides a more complete understanding of how epidemics shape and are shaped.
This is the first study to systematically review the available data on MSM in Low and Medium Income Countries and model the impact of responses to MSM on overall country epidemics, using Peru, Ukraine, Kenya, and Thailand as examples.
This manual provides concise and up-to-date knowledge on 15 infectious diseases that have the potential to become international threats and tips on how to respond to each of them. The 21st century has already been marked by major epidemics. Old diseases - cholera the plague and yellow fever - have returned and new ones have emerged - SARS pandemic influenza MERS Ebola and Zika. These epidemics and their impact on global public health have convinced the world s governments of the need for a collective and coordinated defense against emerging public health threats and accelerated the revision of the International Health Regulations (2005) entered into force in 2007. Another Ebola epidemic another plague epidemic or a new influenza pandemic are not mere probabilities the threat is real. Whether transmitted by mosquitoes other insects via contact with animals or person-to-person the only major uncertainty is when and where they or a new but equally lethal epidemic will emerge. These diseases all have the potential to spread internationally highlighting the importance of immediate and coordinated response. The diseases covered are: Ebola virus disease Lassa fever Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever yellow fever Zika Chikungunya avian and other zoonotic influenza seasonal influenza pandemic influenza Middle-East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cholera monkeypox the plague leptospirosis and meningococcal meningitis. Although originally developed as guidance for WHO officials this publication is available to a wide readership including all frontline responders - communities government officials non-State actors and public health professionals - who need to respond rapidly and effectively when an outbreak is detected.
Down the ages, war epidemics have decimated the fighting strength of armies, caused the suspension and cancellation of military operations, and have brought havoc to the civil populations of belligerent and non-belligerent states alike. This book examines the historical occurrence and geographical spread of infectious diseases in association with past wars. It addresses an intrinsically geographical question: how are the spatial dynamics of epidemics influenced by military operations and the directives of war? The term historical geography in the title indicates the authors' primary concern with qualitative analyses of archival source materials over a 150-year time period from 1850, and this is combined with quantitative analyses less frequently associated with historical studies. Written from the viewpoints of historical geography, epidemiology, and spatial analysis, this book examines in four parts the historical occurrence and geographical spread of infectious diseases in association with wars. Part I: War and Disease, surveys war-disease associations from early times to 1850. Part II: Temporal Trends studies time trends since 1850. Part III: A Regional Pattern of War Epidemics, examines grand themes in the war-disease complex. Part IV: Prospects, considers a series of war-related issues of epidemiological significance in the twenty-first century.
This first full-length study of the Arabic reception of Plato's Timaeus considers the role of Galen of Pergamum (129–c. 216 CE) in shaping medieval perceptions of the text as transgressing disciplinary norms. It argues that Galen appealed to the entangled cosmological scheme of the dialogue, where different relations connect the body, soul, and cosmos, to expand the boundaries of medicine in his pursuit for epistemic authority – the right to define and explain natural reality. Aileen Das situates Galen's work on disciplinary boundaries in the context of medicine's ancient rivalry with philosophy, whose professionals were long seen as superior knowers of the cosmos vis-à-vis doctors. Her case studies show how Galen and four of the most important Christian, Muslim, and Jewish thinkers in the Arabic Middle Ages creatively interpreted key doctrines from the Timaeus to reimagine medicine and philosophy as well as their own intellectual identities.
This book examines the issue of ethics in the context of the provision of military health care in an epidemic. Outbreaks of epidemics like Ebola trigger difficult ethical challenges for civilian and military health care personnel. This book offers theoretical reflections combined with reports from recent military and NGO missions in the field. The authors of this volume focus on military medical ethics adding a distinct voice to the topic of epidemics and infectious diseases. While military health care personnel are always crucially involved during disaster relief operations and large-scale public health emergencies, most of the current literature treats ethical issues during epidemics from a more general perspective without taking into account the specifics of the military context. The contributions in this volume provide first-hand insights into some of the ethical issues encountered by military health care personnel in missions during the Ebola outbreak in 2014/2015. This practical perspective is complimented by academic analyses and theoretical reflections on ethical issues associated with epidemics. This book will be of much interest to students of military studies, ethics and African politics.
"This book is the biography of a Chinese disease. Born in antiquity and reaching maturity during the epidemics that swept China during the seventeenth-century collapse of the Ming dynasty, the ancient notion of wenbing Warm diseases continued to play a role even in the response of Traditional Chinese Medicine to the outbreak of SARS in 2002-3. By following wenbing from its birth to maturity and even life in modern times this book approaches the history of Chinese medicine from a new angle. It explores the possibility of replacing older narratives that stress progress and linear development with accounts that pay attention to geographic, intellectual, and cultural diversity. By doing so it integrates the history of Chinese medicine into broader historical studies in a way that has not so far been attempted, and addresses the concerns of a readership much wider than that of Chinese medicine specialists"--Provided by publisher.